1. Universal Christian Commonwealth
x The theory argues that Christ is a single body with its many limbs and organs, which, many as they are
together make up one body.
x In doing so, it suggests that Christianity is a universal religion that should be adopted by everyone and is
necessary to accept for it leads to the salvation of the soul. These concepts of unity and hierarchy were
used to justify papal authority.
x Universal Christian commonwealth was an excuse used by the Spaniards in order to justify their conquest
of the Americas.
1.1. Positive law, natural law and divine law
x From: the first reflectio of the reverend father, brother franciscus de Victoria.
x Positive law: it is conventional local law example laws of divorce, election procedures etc.
o It applies to residents, citizens and inhabitants of a place. This form of law also applies to tourists
who are in the area.
x Natural law: comes from ones rational capabilities.
x Applies to all human race.
x Victoria uses natural law to argue that being humans, even the Indians have the right to be treated in a
better more equal manner by the Spaniards then they were currently being treated.
x He also uses natural law to justify the possession of land and property by the Indians.
x Divine law: law dictated through religion and therefore is based on divine decree. These laws apply to the
followers of that particular religion.
justify the conquest of the Americas by claiming that divine law promotes the spread of Christianity and
so should be spread to all places and delivered to all people including the Indians.
x Significance t laws are important to maintain a society and law is important because it acts as a guideline
as to what is accepted in society. without it there would be chaos and conflicts between social groups,
1.2. What are the two bases of the law of nations?
x Natural law: look at the previous ans.
x As it becomes used constantly, it becomes naturalized and is called the law of nations.
x Convention based on reason: Derived from the consensus amongst nations and once created applied to
and followed by all nations.
x Derived from natural law or derived from the consensus among nations.
x Papal title refers to the fact that the pope at the time was considered by many to be the ruler of the world
and was given powers over the Christian world. As such the Spaniards argued that if the Pope who is ruler
of the Christian world sanctions the conquest of the Americas then, the conquest is justified. Victoria
argues against this and claims the power of the Pope extends only to the Christian world and over
Christians not over non-Christians. As a result, to take away the Indians land, was to steal from them as
the pope had no jurisdiction over Indians land and no authority over non-Christians.
x A rejection of papal title.
· A refusal by these aborigines to recognize any dominion of the Pope is no reason for making war on them
and for seizing their goods.
· This refers to the Requermiento
· Victoria recognizes the absurdity and coercive character of this requirement and concludes: 11. If the
faith were simply announced and proposed to them and they will not straightway receive it, this is no
ground for the Spaniards to make war on them or to proceed against them under the law of war
· 15. Even when Christianity has been proposed to them with never so much sufficiency of proof and they
will not accept it, this does not render it lawful to make war on them and despoil them of their
· 16. Christian princes cannot, even on the authority of the Pope, restrain these aborigines from sins
against the law of nature or punish them therefore.
1.4. Name three arguments that Victoria says could justify the Spanish conquest of the Americas.
not be stopped from doing so insofar as the travelers are not causing hard to the residents of the land. If
under such conditions travelers are stopped from entering the land to make use of the land, then
conquest is justified. Justifies this by claiming it is a part of the law of nations and therefore applies
x Right to commerce and trade: commerce and trade between nations at the time was a common practice
and so Victoria saw this right as universally applicable. Therefore if the Indians stop the Spaniards from
trading or refuse to trade with them then war is justified.
x Universal right to preach: every religion has the right to spread its message and if it does so peacefully and
people convert willingly, then the Indians have no right to end the process. Nor do they have any right to
harm new converts. If they do, then war is justified.
because royal service would bring personal benefit to Raphael. Moreover, More believes the royal service
advances the public good. He argues, without using his skills for the public good, his knowledge and
wealth and powers are not important matter to him. Moreover, he argues that the court is not interested
in the public good.
x More believes happy state can be established with philosopher king. Thus, for the happy state,
philosophers should give kings advice. However, Raphael believes many philosophers advice the king in
advice would not change kingsv(Á}vP]vZ]PÇu]]}v}}vµu}ovX
condescend to give kings a word of advice!
x ZZoW^KZUZ]o}}Zv[ooZXdZÇ[}voÇ}}Po}}((À]t in fact many
of them have done so already in their published works t if only people in power would listen to them. And
Z[}µoÁZWo}uvX,o]ÌZl]vP}oÇ]v(with wrong ideas in
Z]oZ}}}lvÇZ]o}}Z[À]UµvoZÇuZ]o}}ZZuoÀt as he learned
2.2. The Enclosure Movement
x dZ}uD}]^Zvo}µu}Àuv_}ou]}(he society. It is the process
of privatizing arable land to private land. However, it causes oligopoly by accumulating wealthy for few
teachers, who mo]oÇZ]µvZvµZu_~D}UXííX
2.3. Most of Utopia is an argument against private property. What is the main defense of private property that
the character More offers in Book One.
x ZZoPµZ^:µ]v}]Ç ]u}]oo}vPZ]]À}ÇX_/vµo]Ç
More counter argues the importance of the private property. It increase increases prosperity
2.4. Name three of the physical features of Utopia (the geography or architecture) and explain their
x First of all, Utopia is an island. Its geographical isolation prevents invasion from the land. The entrance is
surrounded by rocks and gravel bars. Only Utopians know the waterway to avoid these natural obstacles.
Moreover, it can be strategically used to destroy enemy warships. Ports are naturally and artificially
}(}](]]}vXh}][P}}o]]o]}o]}v]]u}vt to differentiate Utopia from other
islands (Britain) Second, towns are all identical. Its quality is even higher than Britain. There are no locks
Moreover, everyone farm in Utopia. It represents social equality.
3. Explain the utopian system of government.
3.1. Name three features of the utopian economic system. Explain how one of these features corrected a
problem in the existing social system of England.
3.2. What features of utopia are most similar to our contemporary arrangements? Which are most
x School of ethics that pleasure is only intrinsic good.
x Used as justification for evaluating actions in terms of how much pleasure and how little pain (suffering)
x Hedonist strives to maximize net pleasure (pleasure minus pain)
x System of philosophy based on the teachings of Epicurus, an atomic materialist
x Attack on superstition and divine intervention
x Form of hedonism - declares pleasure as the sole intrinsic good but is different cause it says absence of
pain is the greatest pleasure and advocates a simple life
x Method taught by academics of medival universities in 1100-1500
x Attempt to fse ancient classical philosophy with medival Christian theology
x Primary purpose was to find answers and resolve contradictions
x Adam Smith (the wealth of nations)
x Worldview and moral philosophy -> humans are of primary importance
x Attaches importance to human dignity, concerns, and capabilities
x artistic, literary, and intellectual movement
x revolt against aristocratic social and political norms of Age of Enlightenment
x reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature
x embodied most strongly in visual arts, music, and literature and also on historiography, education, and
The theory argues that christ is a single body with its many limbs and organs, which, many as they are together make up one body. In doing so, it suggests that christianity is a universal religion that should be adopted by everyone and is necessary to accept for it leads to the salvation of the soul. These concepts of unity and hierarchy were used to justify papal authority. N universal christian commonwealth was an excuse used by the spaniards in order to justify their conquest of the americas. From: the first reflectio of the reverend father, brother franciscus de victoria. N positive law: it is conventional local law example laws of divorce, election procedures etc. It applies to residents, citizens and inhabitants of a place. This form of law also applies to tourists who are in the area. N natural law: comes from ones rational capabilities.