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PSYA02H3 Study Guide - Syllogism, Toilet Training, Fetus


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
Steve Joordens

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Psychology
Intelligence Chapter 10 1/9/2013 10:14:00 AM
Williams syndrome (retardation) absence of 20 genes on
chromosome 7, impairs general cognitive abilities, leaves them with
a talent for music and language
Intelligence: the ability to direct ones thinking, adapt to one‟s
circumstances and learn from ones experiences
How Can Intelligence Be Measured
Henry Goddard administered an intelligence test and thought that “stupid”
individuals be segregated and not allowed to procreate
such tests were first developed to help underprivileged students excel in
school
THE INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT
Psychologist Alfred Binet and physician Theodore Simon were called
upon to develop a test that would help predict the success of a child
in the classroom
The test they developed tested a child‟s “natural intelligence” (a
child‟s natural aptitude for learning independent of the child‟s prior
educational achievement)
William stern mental level should be thought as a child‟s mental
age and the best way to determine whether a child was developing
normally was to examine the child‟s mental age to the child‟s
physical age
Lewis Terman ratio IQ: a statistic obtained by dividing a persons
mental age by the persons physical age and then multiplying the
quotient by 100
not a very good way to test IQ (anomalies) because a 6
year old performs like a 12 year old the IQ would be 200 however a
30 year old who performs like a 60 year old would have the IQ of
200
Deviation IQ: a statistic obtained by dividing a persons test score by the
average test score of people in the same age group and then multiplying the
quotient by 100
a person who scored the same as the average person his or her age
would have a deviation IQ of 100 good a 30 year old cannot be a genius

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simply by getting older bad does not allow comparisons between different
ages
solve this problem ratio IQ (children), deviation IQ (adult)
THE LOGIC OF INTELLIGENCE TESTING
intelligence tests measure the ability to answer questions and perform
tasks
most widely used test today is the Stanford-Binet and WAIS which require
respondents to answer a variety of questions and solve a variety of problems
THE CONSEQUENCES OF INTELLIGENCE
intelligence test scores predict a persons academic performance, job
performance, health, wealth, attitudes, basic cognitive abilities
Is Intelligence One Ability or Many
A HIERARCHY OF ABILITIES
Charles Spearman invented a technique known as factor analysis: a
statistical technique that explains a large number of correlations in terms of
a small number of underlying factors
Underlying meaning: if intelligence is a single, general ability then there
should be a very strong positive correlation between peoples performances
on all kinds of tests
- tested his theory on children, his 2 finding:
most measures were positively correlated
although differences measures were positively correlated they were not
perfectly correlated
- combing these two finding he came up with the two factor theory of
intelligence: every task requires a combination of a general ability (g) and
skills that are specific to the tasks (s)
participants overall performance
Louis Thurstone disagreed primary mental abilities (perceptual ability,
verbal ability, numerical ability) these abilities were neither general (g e.g.
athleticism) or specific (s dribbling)

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in essence he believed that just as we have game called baseball and
basketball but no game called athletics so we have abilities such as verbal
ability and perceptual ability but no general ability called intelligence
summing up spearman and thurstone is the confirmatory factor
analysis: correlations between scores on different mental ability
tests are best described by a 3-level hierarchy: general factor
(spearman g), group factors (thurstone) and specific factors
(spearman s)
The Middle Level Abilities
THE DATA-BASED APPROACH (8 middle level abilities)
John Carroll 8 independent middle-level abilities: memory, learning, visual
perception, auditory perception, retrieval ability, cognitive speediness,
processing speed, crystalized intelligence, fluid intelligence
Fluid intelligence (processing e.g. abstract problems): the ability to see
abstract relationships and draw logical inferences
Crystallized intelligence (information e.g. factual information): the ability to
retain and use knowledge that was acquired through experience
THE THEORY-BASED APPRAOCH
Good: conclusions are based on heard evidence
Bad: incapable of discovering any middle-level ability that intelligence tests
didn‟t already measure (imagination/ creativity)
Robert Sternberg believed that there are middle-level abilities to which
data-based approach is blind
Analytic intelligence: identify, define problems and find strategies to solve
them
Creative intelligence: generate solutions that other people do not
Practical intelligence: apply/ implement these solutions in everyday settings
Howard Gardner observed ordinary people, people with brain damage,
prodigies: people with normal intelligence who have an extraordinary ability,
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