PSYB01H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Central Tendency, Observational Error, Covariance

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PSYB01 ± Notes II
Chapter 7: Asking People About Themselves: Survey Research
Response set ± is a tendency to respond to all questions from a particular perspective rather than
3 General Types of Survey Questions
1) Attitude and Beliefs ± the way people think and evaluate issues
2) Facts and Demographics ± ³DJHJHQGHUHWF´
3) Behaviours ± past behaviours or future behaviours ex: exercise
Question Wording
a) unfamiliar technical terms
b) vague or imprecise terms
c) ungrammatical sentence structure
d) phrasing that overloads working memory
e) embedding the question with misleading information
Simplicity ± questions asked should be simple and in common terms, avoid jargon
Double-Barreled Questions ± avoid asking two things at once
Loaded Questions ± written to lead people to respond in one way
Negative Wording ± avoid phrasing questions with negatives
Yea-saying and Nay-saying ± saying yes all the time or no all the time, avoid this by stating the
same question a different way
Responses to Questions
Closed vs. Open Ended Questions ± closed: limited numbers of responses are given, open: can
respond anyway they like
- can yield different results
Rating Scales
- Graphic Rating Scale (mark along a line in cm),
- Semantic Differential Scale (Osgood ± 7 point scales)
o evaluation (good-bad), activity (active-passive), potency (weak-strong)
- Nonverbal Scale for children ± happy faces
Labelling Response Alternatives
- Schwarz ± high-frequency scale (per week), low frequency scales (per month)
Finalizing the Questionnaire
Formatting Questions, Refining Questions
Administering Surveys
- Questionnaires vs. interviews
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- Personal Administration to Groups or individuals ± researcher is present
- Mail Surveys ± low response rates; Internet Surveys ± ambiguity of participants
- Interviewer Bias ± all the biases that can arise from the fact that the interviewer is an
unique human being interacting with another human being
- face to face interviews ± time consuming, expensive, small sample group
- Telephone interviews ± lower cost, quicker than face to face
- focus group interviews ± require much time and expenses, multiple topics arise
Survey Designs to Study Changes over Time
Confidence Intervals
- 95% confident that true value lies within the interval
- a larger same will reduce the size of confidence interval, lower area of uncertainty
Sampling Techniques
- Probability Sampling ± each member of the population has a specific probability of being
chosen for the study
- Non-Probability Sampling ± ZHGRQ¶WNQow the probability of any particular member of
the population being chosen
Probability Sampling
- simple random sampling ± every member of population has equal probability of being
selected for the sample
- stratified random sampling ± population is divided into subgroup(strata) and random
sampling techniques are then used to select sample members from each stratum
- cluster sampling ± researcher identifies clusters of individuals and then sample from these
clusters, multi stage approach
Non-Probability Sampling
- haphazard sampling ± convenience sampling, µWDNHWKHPZKHUH\RXILQGWKH
- purposive sampling ± the purpose is to obtain a sample of people who meet some
predetermined criterion
- quota sampling ± collect specific proportions of data representative of percentages of
groups within population, then use haphazard techniques
Sampling frame ± the actual population of individuals (or clusters) from which a random sample
will be drawn
Response Rate ± the percentage of people in the sample who actually complete the survey
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Chapter 8: Experimental Design
Confounding Variable ± a variable that varies along with the independent variable; confounding
occurs when the effects of the independent variable and an uncontrolled variable are
intertwined, unable to determine which variable is responsible for the observed effect
Internal Validity ± to achieve, one must design and conduct experiment so that only the
independent variable can be the cause of the results
Posttest-Only Design:
1) obtain two equivalent groups of participants (experiment group, control group)
2) introduce the independent variable (experimental manipulation)
3) measure the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable
Selection Differences ± the people selected to be in groups cannot differ in any systematic way
Pretest-Posttest Design:
- difference b/w posttest-only and pretest-posttest ± a prestest is given before the
experimental manipulation is introduced
Advantages and Disadvantages
- A: problems with the equivalence of the groups - enables researcher to assess if groups
are equal beforehand
- A: mortality ± drop out factor, predetermine if people with drop out
- D: time-consuming, awkward, may sensitize participants
Solomon Four-Group Design
Pretest condition
Control Group
Experiment Group
No Prestest (posttest only)
Pretest and posttest
- if no impact of pretest ± postest scores will be the same in both control groups and in the
two experimental group
Independent Group Design
- participants are randomly assigned to the various conditions so that each participates in
one group
Repeated Measures Design
- participants are in all conditions, each participant is measured after receiving each level
of the independent variable
- participant is repeatedly measured on the dependent variable after being in each condition
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