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PSYB32H3 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Anorexia Nervosa, Structured Interview, Biopsychosocial Model

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Konstantine Zakzanis
Study Guide

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Aoral Psyhology PSYB Midter Chapter -5
Chapter 1: Introduction: Definitional & Historical Considerations, Canadas
Mental Health System
Psychopathology: the field concerned with nature and development of abnormal
behaviour, thoughts, & feelings
What is Abnormal Behaviour?
1) Statistical Infrequency: it is infrequent in the general population
Normal curve: bell-shaped curve that places the majority of people in
the middle as far as any particular characteristic is concerned
o Few people fall at either extreme possible abnormal
o Someone who does not deviate much from the average falls in
the middle
o Incomplete definition of what is abnormal, since even if
someone falls under either extreme, it is not always deemed as
abnormal behaviour (E.g. if a profession hockey player scored
20 goals per game compared to an average person, would fall
at an extreme but is this abnormal behaviour?)
2) Violation of Norms: threatens or makes anxious those observing it
Consider cultural norms affect how people view social norms
3) Personal Distress: behaviour is abnormal if it creates great distress &
torment in the person experiencing it (feelings of
anxiety/depression/discomfort in the individual?)
Many abnormal behaviours do not cause personal distress (e.g.
Dexter, narcissists, psychopaths)
4) Disability/Dysfunction: impairment in some important area of life (work,
personal relationships, etc.)
E.g. transvestism (cross-dressing for sexual pleasure) is a disorder if it
distresses the person, but not necessarily a disability
5) Unexpectedness: anxiety is unexpected and out of proportion to the
E.g. someone who is well off who constantly worries about his/her
financial situation
It is not possible to offer a simple definition of abnormality that captures it in
its entirety as it is always changing in regards to norms, & every diagnosis is
The Mental Health Professions
Clinicians: professionals authorized to provide psychological services
Clinical psychologists/neuropsychologist: Ph.D. or Psy. D. degree
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Psychiatrist: M.D. degree, can prescribe psychoactive drugs. Function as physician
(physical examinations, diagnosing medical problems, etc.)
Prescriptive authority to psychologists is opposed by psychiatrists &
most psychologists who view it as an ill-advised dilution of behaviour
Neurologist: MD degree, prescriptions
Social Worker: Master of Social work (MSW)
History of Psychopathology
Many early philosophers & physicians believed that the troubled mind was a result
of displeasure from gods or possession by demons
Early Demonology
Demonology: the doctrine that an evil being, such as the devil may dwell within a
person & control his or her mind and body
o Exorcism: casting out evil spirits
o Trepanning: making a surgical opening in the skull forcing the
evil spirit to escape
Somatogenesis: Hippocrates believed that something was wrong with the soma
(physical body), disturbs thought & action
Classified mental disorders into 3 groups (mania, melancholia, &
o These categories were dependent on balance of fluids in the
body (e.g. if a person was dull/sluggish, he would correspond
this to the body containing phlegm)
Believed that behaviour was affected by imbalance of bodily
structures (e.g. phlegm or blood) which foreshadowed contemporary
Psychogenesis: belief that disturbance has psychological origins
The Dark Ages & Demonology
Prosecution of witches: mentally ill people were considered witches
Testing for witches: was the first test of psychopathology e.g. teeter-totter
experiment: dunk witches into water, if she survived, she was a witch & had
magical abilities, if not, she was not a witch but drowned anyways)
Dangerously insane and incompetent were confined in a hospital (not
possessed though)
lunacy trials to determine a persons sanity held in England – conducted to
protect the mentally impaired where the defendants orientation, memory,
intellect, daily life & habits were judged
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Development of Asylums
Leprosarium were converted into asylums
o Asylums: refuges established for the confinement and care of the
mentally ill
Phthisis was the general paresis of the insane, where 20% of
inmates died while in asylums
mentally ill were separate from physically ill & criminals but
also segregated from the wider community
o Bedlam: a term used to describe the hospitals place of wild uproar &
People paid to see these lunatics, idiots, insane
Moral Treatment
Phillipe Pinel (1745-1826): pushed for humanitarian treatment of mentally
ill in asylums
o Treated to treat patients as sick human beings rather than beasts
o Replaced dungeons with light, airy rooms
o Believed that patients under his care were normal people which
should be approached with compassion and care & people were all
o Believed that moral treatment included restoring a patients sense of
self-esteem by letting her/him demonstrate self-restraint
William Tuke (1732-1822): established on a country estate, providing the
mentally ill a quiet and religious atmosphere to live, work, and rest
Dorthea Dix (1802-77) campaigned to improve conditions that the mentally
ill lived in, and to try to convince the hospitals to take these people in for
treatment but hospitals funds were going to other factors instead
Drugs were most common treatment (e.g. alcohol, cannabis, opium, & chloral
hydrate) but outcomes were not favorable
History of treatment included hydrotherapy, wrapping patients in sheets, hot
boxes, insulin therapy (makes blood sugar drop & patients slips into a coma,
which causes shock. Glucose is needed to help bring them back from coma)
Canada in 20th century - Transinstitutionalization: # of beds has declined
in various institutions because more care is provided in psychiatric units of
general hospitals rather than psychiatric hospitals
Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926)
Created a classification system to establish the biological nature of mental
Noticed the tendency for a certain group of symptoms (syndrome) to appear
together regularly enough to be regarded as having an underlying physical
cause & attributed to biological dysfunction
Proposed 2 major groups of mental disorders: dementia praecox now
known as schizophrenia) and maniac-depressive psychosis (now known as
bipolar disorder)
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