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ch. 10 - intelligence

Course Code
Chandan Narayan

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Chapter 10: intelligence and achievement
Theories of Intelligence
To form useful theories of intelligence, scientists focused on 3 issues:
Whether intelligence is unitary or multi-faceted
Whether it is determined by genetic or environmental factors
Whether is predicts academic success and success outside school
The factor analytic approach
In the earlier days it was believed that intelligence is a unitary or single ability that
affects everything a person does so to test this idea, researchers did a factor
analysis on intelligence test performances of large samples of ppl
Factor analysis: a statistical procedure used to determine which of a number of
factors or scores are both closely related to each other and relatively independent of
other groups of factors or scores
Charles spearman said that intelligence is made up of 2 factors:
A General factor (g): general mental energy or ability thats involved in all
cognitive tasks
A person with a high (g) would be expected to do generally well on all
a number of Specific factors (s): factors that are unique to particular
cognitive tasks
Variations in performance on different tasks could be because of the
different amounts of (s) factors
Lewis thurstone said that there`s 7 skills that make up intelligence:
Verbal meaning, perceptual speed, reasoning, number, rote memory, word
fluency, and spatial visualization

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So kids differ in overall level of intellectual ability and in how skilled they are in
specific aspects of cognitive functioning
The information-processing approach: Sternberg`s triarchic theory
Triarchic theory of intelligence: a theory that proposes 3 major components of
intelligent behaviour: information-processing skills, experience with a particular
situation, and the ability to adapt to the demands of a context. The 3 components
work together to organize and guide intelligent behaviour.
Information-processing skills needed to encode, store and retrieve different
kinds of information
Experience considers how much exposure and practice an individual has
had with a particular intellectual task
Context recognizes that intelligence can`t be separated from the situation in
which it`s used. Because ppl must function effectively in many different
environment, they must be able to adapt to the requirements of a situation
and to select and arrange situations to meet their own abilities and needs
Successful intelligence: Sternberg expanded his triarchic theory into this one. The
ability to fit into, mould, and choose environments that best fulfill the demands of
one`s society and culture and one`s own needs and desires (includes analytical,
creative, and practical abilities
Analytic abilities includes those taught and tested in most schools and
universities such as reasoning about the best answer to a test question
Creative abilities involved in devising new ways of addressing issues and
Practical abilities used in everyday activities such as work, family life.
Practical knowledge we use is tacit
Tacit knowledge (aka common sense): implicit knowledge that`s shared by many
ppl and that guides behaviour
It`s not explicitly formulated and it`s rarely taught directly to kids instead
it`s learned by observing others
When triarchic theory is applied to class setting, it may benefit kid`s learning and

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enhance their motivation to learn
Gardner`s theory of multiple intelligence
Theory of multiple intelligence: Gardner`s multi-factorial theory that proposes
eight distinct types of intelligence: linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical,
bodily kinesthetic, intrapersonal, interpersonal, and naturalists. LOOK AT TABLE
10-2 (pg. 387)
He suggested a ninth form which he called spirituality or existential
3 types of intelligence are similar to the kinds of abilities that`s assessed in
traditional intelligence tests which are: linguistic, logical-mathematical and
spatial abilities
Gardner says that each type of intelligence has its own developmental course in
terms of perception, learning and memory
Ex. Linguistic intelligence emphasizes verbal and memory abilities and
generally develops many years of educational experience. Bodily kinaesthetic
intelligence emphasizes understanding body mechanisms and its coordination
with perceptual abilities and this can appear early in life and it`s less
dependent on experience
Gardner said that a person can have different combinations of these intelligences
and different cultures and periods of history may stress or value some of the forms of
intelligence more that others
This theory has critics:
This theory may not all be separate things meaning some may be tied to
others and others may be distinct
This theory is kind of circular- ex. If someone asks why mike is a good
dancer? Gardners answer would be cuz he has high bodily kinesthetic
intelligence but if you look at the definition of bodily kinesthetic intelligence,
its virtually a definition of dance. In other words, mike is a good dance cuz
hes a good dancer
Few efforts have been made to evaluate gardners theory using standard
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