Study Guides (390,000)
CA (150,000)
UTSC (10,000)
Psychology (2,000)
PSYB45H3 (100)
Study Guide

[PSYB45H3] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (118 pages long)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Jessica Dere
Study Guide
Midterm

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 118 pages of the document.
UTSC
PSYB45H3
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Textbook Notes PSYB45 Lec 1
Chapter #1 & Chapter #2
1
Chapter # Introduction
What is Behaviour?
- Behavior: is anything that a person says or does. Technically, behavior is any muscular,
glandular, or electrical activity of an organism.
- products of behavior eaple: The ehaio that podues a A is studig
effectively. The behaviors that lead to weight loss are resisting overeating and exercising
more.
- Overt (visible)- Walking, talking out loud, throwing a baseball, yelling at someoneall
are behaviors that could be observed and recorded by an individual other than the one
performing the behavior.
- the term behavior can also refer to covert (private, internal) activities that cannot be
readily observed by others
- However, in the field of behavior modification, private or covert behaviors do not
tpiall efe to ehaios doe i piate, suh as udessig i oe’s edoo ith
the door locked and the blinds closed
- Rather, in behavior modification they more commonly refer to activities that occur
ithi oe’s ski ad that theefoe euie speial istuets o poedues fo
others to observe.
- Sometimes we think in words, called private self-talk (e.g., figure skater thinking before
she goes o I hope I do’t fall
- At other times we think by imagining
- Imagining and private self-talk, in addition to being called covert behaviors, are
sometimes referred to as cognitive behaviors.
- Characteristics of behavior that can be measured are called dimensions of behavior.
- The duration of a behavior is the length of time that it last
- The frequency of a behavior is the number of instances that occur in a given period of
time (e.g., Frank planted 5 tomato plants in his garden in 30 minutes)
- The intensity or force of a behavior refers to the physical effort or energy involved in
emitting the behavior (e.g., Mary has a strong grip when shaking hands)
Summary Labels for Behavior
- For behavior modification specialists, many terms that are commonly used by
psychologists, such as intelligence, attitudes, and creativity, are also summary labels for
behavior
- Summary labels commonly used to refer to psychological problems include autism
spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder, anxiety, depression, low self-
esteem, road rage, interpersonal difficulties, and sexual dysfunction
- There are positive reasons that summary terms or labels for behavior patterns are so
frequently used in psychology and in everyday life.
o they may be useful for quickly providing general information about how an
individual might perform
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Textbook Notes PSYB45 Lec 1
Chapter #1 & Chapter #2
2
o the labels may imply that a particular treatment program will be helpful
- However, the use of summary labels also has disadvantages
o One is that they may lead to pseudo-explanations of behavior (pseudo means
false)
o Labels can negatively affect the way an individual might be treated, such as by
fousig o a idiidual’s pole ehaios athe tha stegths
- Behavioral deficits: too little behavior of a particular type
- Behavioral excesses: too much behavior of a particular type
o Use these terms in the book because:
we want to help you to avoid the problems of using general summary
labels
regardless of the labels attached to an individual, it is behavior that
causes concernand behavior that must be treated to alleviate the
problem
specific procedures are now available that can be used to improve
behavior in schools, in workplaces, and in home settingsin fact, just
about anywhere that there is a need to establish more desirable
behaviors
What is Behavior Modification?
- Behavior modification involves the systematic application of learning principles and
tehiues to assess ad ipoe idiiduals’ oet ad oet ehaios i ode to
enhance their daily functioning. Behavior modification has seven main characteristics.
o the most important characteristic is its strong emphasis on defining problems in
terms of behavior that can be measured in some way, and using changes in the
behavioral measure of the problem as the best indicator of the extent to which
the problem is being helped.
o its treatment procedures and techniues ae ays of alteing an indiidual’s
current environment to help that individual function more fully
o Its methods and rationales can be described precisely.
o the techniques of behavior modification are often applied by individuals in
everyday life
o the techniques stem from basic and applied research in the science of learning in
general, and the principles of operant and Pavlovian conditioning in particular
o behavior modification emphasizes scientific demonstration that a particular
intervention or treatment was responsible for a particular behavior change
o it places high value on accountability for everyone involved in behavior
modification programs
- Stimuli ae the people, ojets, ad eets uetl peset i oe’s iediate
surroundings that ipige o oe’s sese eeptos ad that a affet ehaio.
o For example, the teacher, other students, and the furniture in a classroom are all
potetial stiuli i a studet’s eioet i a lassoo settig
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version