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Textbook Notes I

Course Code
Michael Inzlicht

of 14
PSYC12 Textbook Notes
Chapter 1: Introduction
In-group any group with which one affiliates themselves. Any group which one belongs
Out-group any group with which one doesnt affiliate themselves, group to which one
doesnt belong
Minimal group groups formed on arbitrary or random criteria (ex: random assignment)
Prejudice a biased evaluation of a group, based on real or imagined characteristics of the
group members (allows for both positive and negative)
Stereotypes a set of beliefs about the personal attribution of a group of people
Defining Stereotyping
Lippmanns Stereotype
originally from a term to describe a printing process
Lippmann use the word stereotype to describe the tendency of people to think of
someone or something in similar terms (attributes) based on a common feature
shared by each
Stereotypes are largely determined by culture in which one lives
The Social-Cognitive Definition
Brigham (1971) stereotyping is a generalization made about a group concerning a
trait attribution, which is considered to be unjustified by an observer
Hamilton & Trolier (1986) stereotype is a cognitive structure that contains the
perceivers knowledge, beliefs and expectations about a human group too broad,
similar to schema
Schema (Fiske & Taylor) a hierarchically organized, cognitive structure that represents
knowledge about a concept or type of stimulus, and its attributes and the relationships
b/w those attributes
Ashmore & Del Boca (1981) stereotype is a set of beliefs about the personal
attributes of a group of people more accurate
Cultural and Individual Stereotypes
Cultural stereotype consensually or widely shared beliefs about a group
Individual stereotype the beliefs held by an individual about the characteristics of a group
Is a stereotype an Attitude?
Attitude a general evaluation of some object. This evaluation usually falls along a good-
bad or favorable-unfavorable dimension
Intergroup attitude comprises of:
1)Behavioral component discrimination behaviors
Discrimination negative behavior toward someone based on their membership in a
2)Affective component - prejudice feelings
3)Cognitive component - stereotyping thoughts or beliefs
Positive versus Negative Stereotypes
Stereotypes are merely generalizations neither good nor bad
Defining Prejudice
Gardner (1994) the word prejudice can be taken literally as prejudgment about
Prejudice can suggest an evaluation (either positive or negative) toward a stimulus
Prejudice as a Negative Affect
Allport (1954) prejudice as an antipathy (intense dislike) based upon a faulty and
inflexible generalization, may be felt or expressed, may be directed to a group or
Prejudice as an Attitude
Stangor, Sullivan, Ford (1991) found that the best predictor of negative out-group
prejudice is not negative feelings about the out-group but a lack of positive emotions
Eagly & Diekman (2005) prejudice should be regarded as an attitude-in-context
Critics: some theorists assert that an attitude (evaluation) is not the same as affect
oDevine prejudice having an affective, cognitive, and behavior component is
problematic because research shows that the3 components are not always
Prejudice as a Social Emotion
Appraisal a set of cognitions that are attached to a specific emotion
Emotion is triggered by an assessment of the adaptive significance and self-
relevance of the people and events in ones environment
Smith (1993) appraisals involve the self, relevance to ones goals in some fashion
Says that is it too vague to say that prejudice is a positive or negative feeling about
another group, our emotional reactions are quite specific (ex: fear or anger)
The traditional conception of prejudice suggests that is we are prejudiced against
another group then we should treat with the same negative affect to all members of
the group every time we encounter them (but this does not fit with reality)
How we react to an out-group member depends on:
1)What self-category is salient for us at that moment
2)In what context the interaction occurs (competitive/cooperative)
3)How that person helps or hinders our movement toward salient person or group
goals at that time
Sub-typing the process whereby a new category is created to accommodate stereotype-
inconsistent members of a group about which one holds negative stereotypes
1)Occurs between groups
2)Involves evaluation (positive or negative) of a group
3)Is a biased perception of a group
4)Is based on the real or imagined characteristics of the group
The Link Between Stereotyping and Prejudice
There is a link:
Dovidio performs a meta-analysis and found stereotyping and prejudice are
strongly related
Balance Theory ones attitudes, behaviors, and evaluation (and affect) toward another
person should be cognitively consistent, or else one experiences a state of imbalance
which is an aversive state of cognitive arousal
Festinger cognitive dissonance (aversive cognitive arousal) ex: hypocritical
Reasoned action theory out beliefs about a group will be determined by our attitudes
toward a group
It could never be the case that the beliefs (Stereotypes) about the group would not be
consistence with ones attitudes (or prejudice) toward the group
There isnt a link:
Wicker attitude-behavior relationship is weak
Brigham relationship of stereotypes of a group and behavior toward a group is
Early Perspectives in Stereotyping Research
Katz & Braly (1933) - First empirical study of stereotyping
Whites given a list of adjectives were to match them to different ethnic groups
Individual Differences in Stereotyping
Hovland people who were less educated, distracted and had lower self-esteem were
more easily persuaded
Motivational-reinforcement theory suggests that the prevalence of prejudice and
stereotyping at that time was attributable to the need for social approval and self-
Thorndikes Law of Effect says that any behavior that is followed by a positive event will
more likely be performed again in the future
Frustration-Aggression Theory (Dollard) frustration leads to aggression, and a special
type of aggression is feelings of prejudice toward others (ex: hard economic times)
Prejudice personality Authoritarian personality (Adorno) a childs early experience with
their parent will determine whether they will develop prejudice attitudes
Authoritarian individual strongly attached to status quo, close-mindedness, black-
white thinking, preoccupation with power relations, submissiveness to authority,
Group-Level Explanations
Duckitt (1992) shift from individual differences focus to group differences focus
Individual level explanations were unable to adequately explain why there was more
prejudice and racism in the southern States
The rise of civil-movement, institutionalized nature of racism in US and showed that
less-prejudiced people were condoning racism along with more blatant racists
Perceived Group Threat in group perceives out-group to be threaten/block their goals
Realistic-conflict theory states that prejudice and stereotyping arise from the competition
between groups for scarce, valued resources
The Social-Cognition Revolution
Birth of cognitive-science September 11, 1956