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prejuddice part 1

12 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC12H3
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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Psychology of Prejudice 1 Lecture 7
Up until now weve discussed prejudice from the eyes of a perpetuator
ppl who are observing.
Today we discuss what it means to be the target?
Stigma characteristic whereby ppl are devalued in society.
The self protective properties
1) Attributional ambuiguity when we receive the outcomes we do,
were not sure why we receive them, and when we are victims of
prejudice or when we belong to a devalued group we have an extra
layer of ambiguity did that person say that/do that b/c I did that? Or
b/c Im a member of my specific racial/religious/gender category b/c
there is a extra layer of ambiguity, ppl dont know why they receive the
outcomes they do and paradoxically this can actually protect ppl, it can
lead ppl to not feel so bad when bad things happen to them.
2) Engage in domain disidentification if ppl are negatively
stereotyped in academics (ie women & girls are not good in math &
science ) - it could make women devalue math and science who
cares if women arent good in math and science I dont like math and
science
3) Ppl engage in in-group comparisons if youre in-group receives a
poor outcome if it hurts to compare yourself with the out-group you
compare yourself with your in-group to have safe
Moderating characteristics characteristics that can change the way
ppl perceive situations, it can affect the way ppl make attributions that
their identities is being stigmatized or not.
Negative consequences of stigma defenses > (-) consequences of
engaging in these protective strategies.
What is it like to be a target?
Doll test 1954 Kenneth Clark psychologist asking black children
which doll they preferred (white doll or black doll). Most children
picked the white doll.
15/21 children preferred the white doll.
50 yrs later the results still mirror the same results obtained in 1954.
Study that used to argue against segregation of schools in the US.
There was ruling against, separate white and black schools
Society may be leading black children to dislike their own group to
have low –esteem perhaps, and one of the contributors of this were
segregated schools.
Is it possible that you like the doll that you are most exposed to (Barbie
was always white). Disney also has black dolls that have been
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produced, but children like these dolls less than the white dolls? Is this
a sign of prejudice?)
Change of perspective:
Matthew Sheppard (gay) Laramie Wyoming 1998 Matthew
went into a gay-friendly lounge and two men pretended to be his
friends russel & aaron. They drive him into went into the outskirts of
Laramie - where a pure act of brutality took place, took a gun and
pistol whipped him, and beat him until he was unconscious, tied him
up to a fence with his own shoelaces and left him to die. He was found
the next morning by a cyclist.
This is a hate crime done pure b/c Matthew Sheppard was gay. They
beat him b/c of what he was, not b/c of who he was as a person, not b/c
of his personality but b/c he belonged to a category that they did not
agree with
In the US, this would not be considered as a hate crime, b/c in these
places sexual orientations is considered as a category that is to be
protected.
Laramie project play that was done on this murder.
The lions story will never be told as long as the hunter is telling the
story. We know so much about the perpetuators but we dont know
what it means to be a target.
Stigma Irvin Goffman sociologist
Spoiled identity their identity is less valuable than the ppl who are
not stigmatized, they are somehow marked against.
Abominations of body ppl who are obese, having a facial deformities,
ppl who have excessive armpit sweat. These are all stigmatizing in our
community. Obesity is one of the few remaining stigmatizing
characteristics that ppl are openly prejudiced about; ppl openly talk
about disliking fat ppl, whereas they wouldnt dare to have open
negative attitudes about other groups based on religion, race or gender
Blemishes of Character things about a character that ppl judge
dementia, Alzheimers, mental illness, anorexia, bulimia; For anorexia
ppl tend to believe that the individuals inflict it onto themselves, but in
essence they dont realize that there is a underlying originating cause
to it.
Tribal markers indicators of race, ethnicity, and religion - the color
of your skin, the clothing you wear, visible indications that you belong
to one ethnic/religious/racial group or another
All 3 of these things, abominations of body, blemishes of character, and
tribal markers are all characteristics that can lead ppl to become
stigmatized.
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What type of stigma is being age 73?
a) Abominations of body
b) Blemishes of character
c) Tribal markers
d) Age is not a stigma
Where Goffmans 3 parts fall apart; it is hard to put age into any category -
Abominations of body = as the body gets older, out body also gets older and
deteriorates.
Blemishes of Character = what youd least put - Certain personality
characteristics that accompany old age; our memory starts to fail.
Tribal markers = a marker that you cannot change about your self. Youre
going to be 73 no matter how much plastic surgery you do. Being a black,
never changes no matter how light skinned you try to get, etc.
Gender as a stigmatizing characteristic; and when we think about
gender, we think about women. That is the predominant form of
sexism. Is it possible for men to be discriminated upon based on
gender.
Montreal Gazette claim of discriminations based on gender by male
has increased. More men than women complain- affirmative action
initiatives promoting women.
EX: men cannot get work at retail stores b/c the managers prefer only
female salesperson. (H&M, la chateau, etc.)
Scarborough UTSC womens only work out times; men want to have
their own work out time.
***A model of stigma reactions Major & OBrien 2005
Collective representations culture, society, norms, roles
(A) In any given culture, (B) in any given situations and the (C)
characteristics of an individual these 3 things will determine whether
an individual makes an appraisal that they are being the target of
discrimination.
Ex: Culture in Canada; situational cue psych classroom, surrounded
by women.
Personal characteristics high stigma conscious/low stigma
consciousness, own race/gender/religion the fact that there are so many
women in the room, is that affecting me in any way?, that will determine
if I make a threat appraisal or not. Personally, I am dont feel threatened.
-If you do make a threat appraisal, then there is going to be non-volitional
responses (stress responses, anxious, sweating, heart increase ;)
- Then there will be Volitional responses (I dont want other ppl to know
that I am stressed so I have to suppress my thoughts, and emotions, I
dont want other ppl to think I am stressed).
3
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Description
Psychology of Prejudice 1 Lecture 7 Up until now weve discussed prejudice from the eyes of a perpetuator ppl who are observing. Today we discuss what it means to be the target? Stigma characteristic whereby ppl are devalued in society. The self protective properties 1) Attributional ambuiguity when we receive the outcomes we do, were not sure why we receive them, and when we are victims of prejudice or when we belong to a devalued group we have an extra layer of ambiguity did that person say thatdo that bc I did that? Or bc Im a member of my specific racialreligiousgender category bc there is a extra layer of ambiguity, ppl dont know why they receive the outcomes they do and paradoxically this can actually protect ppl, it can lead ppl to not feel so bad when bad things happen to them. 2) Engage in domain disidentification if ppl are negatively stereotyped in academics (ie women & girls are not good in math & science ) - it could make women devalue math and science who cares if women arent good in math and science I dont like math and science 3) Ppl engage in in-group comparisons if youre in-group receives a poor outcome if it hurts to compare yourself with the out-group you compare yourself with your in-group to have safe Moderating characteristics characteristics that can change the way ppl perceive situations, it can affect the way ppl make attributions that their identities is being stigmatized or not. Negative consequencesof stigma defenses > (-) consequences of engaging in these protective strategies. What is it like to be a target? Doll test 1954 Kenneth Clark psychologist asking black children which doll they preferred (white doll or black doll). Most children picked the white doll. 1521 children preferred the white doll. 50 yrs later the results still mirror the same results obtained in 1954. Study that used to argue against segregation of schools in the US. There was ruling against, separate white and black schools Society may be leading black children to dislike their own group to have low esteem perhaps, and one of the contributors of this were segregated schools. Is it possible that you like the doll that you are most exposed to (Barbie was always white). Disney also has black dolls that have been 1 www.notesolution.com produced, but children like these dolls less than the white dolls? Is this a sign of prejudice?) Change of perspective: Matthew Sheppard (gay) Laramie Wyoming 1998 Matthew went into a gay-friendly lounge and two men pretended to be his friends russel & aaron. They drive him into went into the outskirts of Laramie - where a pure act of brutality took place, took a gun and pistol whipped him, and beat him until he was unconscious, tied him up to a fence with his own shoelaces and left him to die. He was found the next morning by a cyclist. This is a hate crime done pure bc Matthew Sheppard was gay. They beat him bc of what he was, not bc of who he was as a person, not bc of his personality but bc he belonged to a category that they did not agree with In the US, this would not be considered as a hate crime, bc in these places sexual orientations is considered as a category that is to be protected. Laramie project play that was done on this murder. The lions story will never be told as long as the hunter is telling the story. We know so much about the perpetuators but we dont know what it means to be a target. Stigma Irvin Goffman sociologist Spoiled identity their identity is less valuable than the ppl who are not stigmatized, they are somehow marked against. Abominations of body ppl who are obese, having a facial deformities, ppl who have excessive armpit sweat. These are all stigmatizing in our community. Obesity is one of the few remaining stigmatizing characteristics that ppl are openly prejudiced about; ppl openly talk about disliking fat ppl, whereas they wouldnt dare to have open negative attitudes about other groups based on religion, race or gender Blemishes of Character things about a character that ppl judge dementia, Alzheimers, mental illness, anorexia, bulimia; For anorexia ppl tend to believe that the individuals inflict it onto themselves, but in essencethey dont realize that there is a underlying originating cause to it. Tribal markers indicators of race, ethnicity, and religion - the color of your skin, the clothing you wear, visible indications that you belong to one ethnicreligiousracial group or another All 3 of these things, abominations of body, blemishes of character, and tribal markers are all characteristics that can lead ppl to become stigmatized. 2 www.notesolution.com
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