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Midterm Notes Chapter 11-Intelligence and Thinking.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Midterm Notes Chapter 11-Intelligence and Thinking Intelligence: the general term used to refer to a person’s ability to learn and remember information, to recognize concepts and their relations, and to apply the information to their own behaviour in an adaptive way Any definition of intelligence depends on cultural judgements Study of Intelligence approaches: Differential Approach: involves the creation of tests that identify and measure individual differences in people’s knowledge and ability to solve problems. Developmental Approach: based on the way children learn to perceive, manipulate, and think about the world -Most influential proponent – Jean Piaget Information Processing Approach: focuses on types of skills people use to think and to solve problems -Robert Sternberg’s influential theory of successful intelligence THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE Spearman’s Two-Factor Theory Charles Spearman – proposed person’s performance on a test determined by two factors, g & s G Factor – factor of intelligence common to all intellectual tasks (i.e. apprehension of experience, eduction of relations, and eduction of correlates) S Factor – factor of intelligence specific to a particular task Solving analogies requires all three G factor abilities -Apprehension of experience (reading and understanding the words in the analogy) -Eduction of relations (ability to perceive the relation between Lawyer and Client) -Eduction of Correlates (ability to apply a rule inferred from one case to a similar one) Correlations among tests of particular intelligences provided empirical evidence for this theory -If people are given 10 different tasks and each measures separate independent ability, the scores will be unrelated between tests, correlations will be about 0 -If the tests measure abilities that are different manifestations of a single trait, correlation=1 Evidence From Factor Analysis Factor analysis: statistical procedure that identifies common factors among group of tests -Developed by Spearman and Karl Pearson -Provides clues about nature of intelligence but not a theory of intelligence If scores on several tests correlate well with one another, the tests or subtests measure the same factor Birren and Morrison – Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - 11 subtests on 933 people -Analysis revealed three factors (general intelligence, maintaining info in short term memory and manipulating numbers, spatial ability) -Factor Loadings – express the degree to which a test is correlated to a factor WAIS useful predictor of scholastic performance but does not include stuff like music and sports Thurstone – 56 tests to 218 college students, identified 7 factors (verbal comprehension, verbal fluency, number, spatial visualization, memory, reasoning, perceptual speed) Esenck suggested second factor analysis can be done on Thurstone’s factors, if common factor among them, it would support the G Factor Horn and Cattell – performed the second factor analysis and found two major factors: fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence Fluid Intelligence: relatively culture-free tasks (see relations between items or seeing patterns) (Casual Learning/Innate) Crystallized Intelligence: acquire information from their culture such as vocab and info learned in school (School Learning/what a person accomplishes through their fluid) An Information Processing Theory of Intelligence Sternberg – success achieved in life strongly affected by analyzing and managing unique combination of strength and weaknesses -Devised Triarchic theory of intelligence derived from information processing approach (Analytic, Creative and Practical Intelligences) Successful Intelligence: ability to analyze one’s strengths and weaknesses, use strengths to great advantage, and minimize impact of weaknesses by overcoming or compensating for them Analytic Intelligence: mental mechanism used to plan and execute tasks; includes meta components, performance, and knowledge acquisition components -Metacomponents – decide the nature of intellectual problem, select strategy for solving and allocate resources -Performance Components – processes actually used to perform the task -Knowledge Acquisition Components – use to gain new knowledge by sifting out relevant info and integrating with things already known Creative Intelligence: ability to deal effectively with novel situations and to solve problems automatically that have been encountered before Practical Intelligence: reflects behaviours that were subject to natural selection: adaption, selection, shaping People with damage to frontal lobe support practical intelligence importance – still score high on intelligence tests, though no longer able to plan their lives Neuropsychological Theories of Intelligence Garner formulated theory of multiple intelligences, rejecting idea of a single or few primary types Logical-Mathematical: Ability to reason logically and process math equations Verbal-Linguistic: Ability to use language, sensitivity to meanings and sounds of words Visual-Spatial: Ability to understand patterns in closed or open spaces Naturalist: Ability to understand patterns in nature Bodily-Kinesthetic: Ability to control the body precisely Musical: Ability to understand and create musical patterns Intrapersonal: Ability to understand the self, one’s skills, emotions, thoughts and intentions Interpersonal: Ability to recognize differences among people; understand their emotions, intentions and motivations Existential: intelligence of big questions Syllogism: logical construction containing major premise, minor premise and conclusion (All birds have feathers; Canada Goose is a bird; Canada Goose has feathers) INTELLIGENCE TESTING From Mandarins to Galton 2200 BC Chinese administrators tested civil servants periodically to ensure they were qualified for their jobs Sir Francis Galton – biologist and statistician – most important early investigator in differences in ability -Strongly influenced by cousin Charles Darwin -Concluded intellectual abilities were heritable -Noted people with low abilities were poor at making sensory discriminations, decided that is a way to measure intelligence -Established Anthropometric Laboratory and tested 9000 people on 17 variables including height, weight, muscular strength, and ability to perform sensory discriminations -Simple tests of sensory discriminations in disfavour of other researchers and not continued after Galton’s death -Galton outlined logic of correlation, developed logic of twin studies and adoptive parent studies Intelligence Tests Gilbert – thought you could measure intelligence with a ruler against your forehead, if recedes from the ruler, indication of being weak in reasoning and deductive facilities The Binet-Simon Scale Alfred Binet disagreed with Galton’s conception of human intelligence disagreed with Galton’s sensory tests and recommended using variety of psychological abilities (Imagery, attention, comprehension, imagination, judgement of visual space, memory) Binet-Simon Scale (1905): tests arranged in order of difficulty, researchers obtained norms for each test Norm: data concerning comparison groups that permit the score of an individual to be assessed relative to his or her peers Mental Age: measure of a person’s intellectual development; the level of intellectual development that could be expected for an average child at a particular age The Stanford-Binet Scale Terman revised Binet-Simon scale in 1915 and made: Stanford-Binet Scale: intelligence test that consists of various tasks grouped according to mental age; provides the standard measurement of the intelligence quotient Intelligence Quotient (IQ): single measure of general intelligence; by definition, the ratio of a person’s mental age to their chronological age multiplied by 100 Ratio IQ: formula for computing the IQ} IQ=MA/CA X100 Deviation IQ(Replaces Ratio IQ in 1960): procedure for computing iq, compares child score with those of same age [invented by Wechsler] Wechsler’s Tests Wechser-Bellevue Scale published in 1939 (not limited to single performance
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