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PSYA02H3: Ch9-10 (Mtuner 1 Review)

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Helen  Li     PSYA02H3     Chapter  9:  Measuring  Aptitude  &  Intelligence     • Intelligence:  the  ability  to  think,  understand,  reason  &  cognitively  adapt  to  &   overcome  obstacles  (based  on  Neisser  et  al,  1996)     o How  you  recognize  &  solve  problems     • Achievement  tests:  measure  knowledge  &  thinking  skills  that  an  individual   has  acquired   o Small  scale:  Quizzes,  tests   o Larger  scale:  Statewide  &  nation-­‐wide  achievement  tests     • Aptitude  tests:    designed  to  measure  an  individual’s  potential  to  perform   well  on  a  specific  range  of  tasks     o Measure  current  abilities  &  aptitude  tests  predict  future  performance     o College  entrance  exams  -­‐>  SAT   o Armed  Services  Vocational  Aptitude  Battery  (ASVAB)     ▯ Measures  aptitude  for  entire  range  of  military  jobs,  from   languages  &  communication  to  tank  &  helicopter  mechanics     • Psychometrics:  the  measurement  of  psychological  traits  &  abilities-­‐   including  personality,  attitudes,  &  intelligence     o Reliability     ▯ Measurement  of  the  degree  to  which  a  test  produces  consistent   results     ▯ One  method:  test-­‐retest  reliability     o Validity     ▯ Degree  to  which  a  test  actually  measures  the  trait  or  ability  it  is   intended  to  measure     • Standardized  test:  test  that  has  set  of  questions  or  problems  that  are   administered  &  scored  in  a  uniform  (in  other  words,  standardized)  way   across  large  numbers  of  individuals     • Norms:  stats  that  allow  individuals  to  be  evaluated  relative  to  a  typical/   standard  score     o Another  stat  is  called  standard  deviation     ▯ Measures  variability  around  a  mean     ▯ In  intelligence  tests,  can  be  interpreted  as  typical  number  of   points  between  an  individuals  score  &  mean  score     o Percentile  rank:  percentage  of  scores  below  a  certain  point     ▯ Score  of  100  has  a  percentile  rank  of  0.50,  meaning  that  50%  of   pop  scores  below  this  level     • The  Stanford-­‐  Binet  Test     o Alfred  Binet  &  Theodore  Simon  developed  method  of  accessing   children’s  academic  achievement  at  school   o  Achievement  test-­‐  measure  of  how  well  a  child  performed  at  various   cognitive  tasks  relative  to  other  children  of  his  age     • 7  year  old  with  mental  age  of  7  would  be  considered   average  because  her  mental  age  matches  her   chronological  age     Helen  Li     PSYA02H3   o Lewis  Terman  at  Stanford  University  had  it  translated  to  English  &   extended  test  beyond  school  ages  into  very  high-­‐  achieving  adults   (published  in  1916)   ▯  Named  Stanford-­‐Binet  Intelligence  Scale     ▯ Immediately  described  Stanford-­‐  Binet  Test:  test  intended  to   measure  innate  (genetic)  intelligence  even  though  Binet   viewed  his  original  test  as  measure  of  achievement     o William  Stern  -­‐>  intelligence  quotient  (IQ):  a  measure  in  which  the   mental  age  of  an  individual  is  divided  by  the  person’s  chronological   age  &  then  multiplied  by  100   ▯ 10  yr  old  child  with  mental  age  of  7  would  have  IQ  of  7/10  x   100  =  70   • IQ  replaced  idea  of  a  mental  age-­‐  something  that  reflects   progress  in  school  with  number  purporting  to  measure   persons  ability     • Wechsler  Adult  Intelligence  Scale  (WAIS):  most  commonly  used   intelligence  test  used  on  adolescents  &  adults  (fourth  edition)     o  Wechsler-­‐Bellvue  test  -­‐>  first  developed  by  David  Wechsler  in  1939       ▯ Ironically,  called  himself  as  having  mild  intellectual  disabilities-­‐   “feeble  minded”  (term  used  at  the  time)       ▯ GAI  -­‐>  from  scores  on  Verbal  Comprehension  &  Perceptual   Reasoning  indices     • Tap  into  an  individuals  intellectual  abilities  without   placing  so  much  emphasis  on  how  fast  he/she  can  solve   problems  &  make  decisions     ▯ CPI  -­‐>  based  on  Working  Memory  &  Processing  Speed  subtests     • Included  in  Full  Scale  IQ  category  because  greater   working  memory  capacity  &  processing  speed  allow   more  cognitive  resources  to  be  devoted  to  reasoning  &   solving  problems   • Standard  deviation  -­‐>  statistic  often  used  to  understand  &  evaluate   standardized  tests  (measures  avg  variability  around  a  mean)   Helen  Li     PSYA02H3   • In  1930’s;  Raven’s  Progressive  Matrices  (often  shortened  to  Raven’s   Matrices):  an  intelligence  test  that  emphasizes  problems  that  are  intended   not  to  be  bound  to  a  particular  language  or  culture     o Main  sets  of  tasks  -­‐>  measure  extent  to  which  test  takers  can  see   patterns  in  the  shapes/  colours  within  a  matrix  &  determine  which   shape/  colour  would  complete  the  pattern     ▯ Does  not  require  knowledge  of  specific  language,  culture,  or   human-­‐made  object/  custom     o Two  abilities  key  to  intelligence  behavior:   1) Identifying  &  extracting  important  information  (deductive   reasoning)     2) Applying  it  to  new  situations  (reproductive  reasoning)     • Galton  became  first  to  try  to  scientifically  measure  intelligence  through   program  of  research  (developed  anthropometrics  as  means  to  measure   intelligence  on  speed  &  perception)   o Cousin;  Charles  Darwin  -­‐>  Explained  their  eminence  by  good   breeding-­‐  “genetically”  gifted   ▯ Galton  discounted  how  children  have  (great  deal  of  privilege,   good  nutrition,  fine  schools  &  plenty  of  parental  attention)     o Anthropometrics  (literally,  “the  measurement  of  people”):   historical  term  referring  to  the  method  of  measuring  physical  &   mental  variation  in  humans     ▯ He  presented  series  of  perceptual  tests  to  hundreds  of  people     • Did  not  seem  to  correlate  with  eminence  as  he   predicted     • Modern  approaches  to  measuring  intelligence  (perceptual  tests)  -­‐>   assessment  of  working  memory   o Researches  found  correlation  between  working  memory  capacity  &   standardized  reasoning  tests     ▯ Working  memory  tests  measure  how  well  one  can  hold   instructions  &  info  in  memory  while  completing  problem-­‐   solving  tasks     • Larger  brain  related  to  greater  intelligence?     o Most  studies  were  highly  flawed  &  conclusions  led  to  Caucasian  males   (&  therefore  Caucasian  male  scientists  who  conducted  these   experiments)  -­‐>  smartest  of  human  race   o Most  obvious  features  of  human  brain  is  its  convoluted  surface;  called   “gyri”  comprise  outer  part  of  cerebral  cortex)     ▯ Number/  size  of  these  cerebral  gyri  is  greater  in  species  that   have  complex  cognitive  &  social  lives;  e.g.  elephants,  dolphins,   primates   • Relationship  between  brain  size  &  IQ  can  be  used  to  better  understand   clinical  conditions     o E.g.  individuals  who  experience  anorexia  nervosa  or  prolonged   periods  of  alcohol  abuse  appear  to  lose  brain  mass  along  with  certain   Helen  Li     PSYA02H3   cognitive  skills  such  as  ability  to  put  together  block  designs  in   standardized  test     o Even  in  relatively  health  adults,  brain  volume  gradually  declines  as   result  of  aging   ▯ Correlated  with  declines  in  some,  but  not  all  measures  of   intelligence     • Although  WAIS  provides  full  IQ  score  as  measure  of  general  intelligence;  also   includes  subscales  for  general  ability  &  cognitive  proficiency       Chapter  9.2:  Understanding  Intelligence     • Factor  analysis:  statistical  technique  that  reveals  similarities  among  a  wide   variety  of  items     o E.g.  different  measures  such  as  vocab,  reading,  comprehension,  &   verbal  reasoning  might  overlap  enough  to  form  “language  ability”   factor     o According  to  perspective  that  assumes  intelligence  is  a  single  factor,   someone  who  is  skilled  in  math  subjects  will  also  be  skilled  in  reading   &  writing           • Fluid  intelligence  (Gf):  type  of  intelligence  that  is  used  to  adapt  p  new   situations  &  solve  new  problems  without  relying  on  previous  knowledge     o E.g.  problems  that  don’t  require  prior  experience  with  task/  any   specialized  knowledge  &  may  include  tasks  such  as  pattern   recognition  &  solving  geometric  puzzles  (ravens  Matrices)   • Crystallized  intelligence  (Gc):  form  of  intelligence  that  relied  on  extensive   experience  &  knowledge  &  therefore,  tends  to  be  relatively  stable  &  robust     o Measure  Gc  with  vocab,  similarity/  difference  &  reading   comprehension  problems  because  they  all  require  prior  knowledge     • Reasons  why  intelligence  is  divisible  into  both  fluid  &  crystallized  forms     Helen  Li     PSYA02H3   o The  two  types  are  not  equally  affected  in  old  age     o Valid  &  unique  tests  for  each  type  have  been  developed     o The  type  types  of  intelligence  can  be  more  fully  capture  the  complex   and  individualized  ways  that  people  express  their  cognitive  skills   • L.L.  Thurstone  examines  scores  of  general  intelligence  tests  &  found  7  diff   clusters  -­‐>  primary  mental  abilities  (reading  comprehension,  spatial   reasoning,  numerical  ability  &  memory  span)   • Savants:  individuals  with  low  mental  capacity  in  most  domains  but   extraordinary  abilities  in  other  specific  areas  such  as  music,  mathematics,  or   art   o If  intelligence  was  a  single  ability  -­‐>  not  expect  such  brilliance  in  one   area  &  impaired  functioning  in  others   • Roberts  Sternberg  -­‐>  triarchic  theory  of  intelligence;  model  of  intelligence   consisting  of  3  domains     1) Analytical  intelligence     a. Verbal,  mathematical  problem-­‐solving  type     b. Concept  of  academic  achievement  &  notion  of  intelligence   measured  by  g   2) Practical  intelligence     a. Ability  to  address  real-­‐life  problems  that  are  encountered  in  daily   life  -­‐>  occur  in  an  individuals  specific  work  context  &  family  life   3) Creative  intelligence       a. Ability  to  create  new  ideas  &  solve  problems         • Howard  Gardner  (1999)  -­‐>  multiple  intelligence:  model  claiming  that  8  diff   forms  of  intelligence  exist,  each  independent  from  the  others     o Influential  in  elementary  education     o Intuitive  sense:  People  can  be  great  with  language  but  clumsy  &   uncoordinated   Helen  Li     PSYA02H3     • Learning  styles:  the  hypothesis  that  individuals  are  fundamentally  different   in  how  they  best  acquire  information     o Visual,  auditory,  reading/writing,  kinesthetic/  tactile  (moving  &   touching)         • Flynn  effect:  refers  to  the  steady  population  level  increases  in  intelligence   tests  scores  over  time   o Are  today’s  kids  smarter  than  earlier  generations?     ▯ Improved  nutrition,  health  care,  early  childhood  educational   programs?     o Are  younger  generations  just  better  at  taking  tests?     ▯ People  often  increase  their  test  scores  by  taking  it  a  second   time     o Technological  advances  -­‐>  more  likely  reason  for  Flynn  effect   ▯ Increased  exposure  to  tv,  computers,  video  games  enhances   individuals  ability  to  handle  visualization  tasks  &  increases   comfort  level  with  tests?       Chapter  9.3:  Heredity,  Environment,  &  Intelligence     Helen  Li     PSYA02H3   • In  1860’s  -­‐>  Sir  Francis  Galton  -­‐>  motivated  to  study  intelligence  to  prove   that  certain  families  were  intellectually  superior  because  of  the  genes  they   inherited     • Behavioral  genetics:  examines  how  genes,  environment  &  their  interaction   influence  behavior  &  cognition     o Human  Genome  Project  &  modern  imaging  techniques  -­‐>  scientists   can  now  view  genetics  of  intelligence  in  ways  Galton  &  Morton   couldn’t  have     o Plomin  &  Spinath  describe  behavioral  genetics  as  3  layered  approach   1) Genetics:  To  what  degree  is  intelligence  an  inherited  trait?     2) Genes:  If  intelligence  does  have  a  genetic  component,  which  genes   are  involved?     3) Genome:  If  we  can  identify  which  genes  contribute  to  intelligence,   then  how  exactly  do  they  contribute  to  brain  development  &   function?   • Trend  -­‐>  as  the  degree  of  genetic  relatedness  increases,  similarity  in  IQ   scores  also  increases  (e.g.  adoptive  siblings  compared  to  monozygotic  twins)         • Behavioral  genomics:  study  of  how  specific  genes  in  their  interactions  with   the  environment,  influence  behavior     o Focus  to  intelligence  is  to  identify  genes  related  to  increases/   decreases  in  certain  types  of  learning  &  problem  solving   o Researchers  developed  mouse  models  of  intelligence  (ethical)     ▯ Gene  knockout  (KO)  studies:  involve  removing  a  specific  gene   though  to  be  involved  in  a  trait  (such  as  intelligence)  and   testing  the  effects  of  removing  the  gene  with  those  who  have  it     • E.g.  in  first  study,  researchers  discovered  that  removing   one  particular  gene  disrupted  ability  of  mice  to  learn   spatial  layouts     Helen  Li     PSYA02H3   • Can  take  opposite  approach  to  knocking  genes  out  -­‐>   can  insert  genetic  material  into  mouse  chromosomes  to   study  the  changes  associated  with  new  gene     o Transgenic  -­‐>  the  gene  transplant  that  the  animal   receives     o Princeton  University  lab  mouse,  Doogie  (named   for  fictional  whiz  kid,  Doogie  Howser  from   1980’s  tv)   • Growing  up  in  an  enriched  environment  enhances  brain  development  &   functioning  (Intelligence)   o Diet  &  lifestyle  factors  influence  intelligence     o Income-­‐>  relevant  environmental  contributor  to  intelligence     ▯ High-­‐socioeconomic-­‐status  students  more  likely  to  enjoy   advantage  of  better  schools/  teachers     ▯ Low-­‐income  households  face  higher  stress  levels  on  day-­‐to-­‐day   basis  &  stress  can  distract  children  from  school  -­‐>  stress   responses  -­‐>  negative  impact  on  brain  development     o Children  born  during  first  part  of  calendar  year  have  higher  verbal  &   mathematical  aptitude   ▯ Children  who  are  oldest  in  their  class  get  most  out  of  school…   more  mature?  Genetic  factors?     ▯ Pattern  holds  true  even  if  an  elder  sibling  dies  during  infancy  -­‐ >  if  there  are  3  siblings,  the  middle  sibling  will  still  score  higher   than  younger  sibling     o Health,  nutrition,  season  of  birth  are  all  related  to  intelligence     ▯ Children’s  IQ  scored  are  significantly  lower  if  they  are  not   attending  school  (long  summer  breaks  from  school)   • Stimulating  environments  result  in  faster  learning     • In  which  way  have  psychologists  studied  major  environment  factors  that,   through  their  interaction  with  genes,  influence  intelligence?     o By  measuring  stress  hormones  among  poor  &  affluent  children     o By  monitoring  children’s  nutrition  &  then  correlating  it  with   intelligence  scores       Helen  Li     PSYA02H3   • Females  have  on  average,  higher  test  scores  on  verbal  fluency  -­‐>  apply  verbal   strategies  to  solving  visual-­‐spatial  problems  -­‐>  actually  outperform  males   when  the  visual-­‐spatial  tasks  also  rely  on  verbal  skills,  such  as  remembering   where  specific  categories  of  items  are  located   • Development  studies  help  us  understand  how  some  sex  differences  in   cognition  arise     o Boys/  girls  born  roughly  equal  spatial  abilities     • Herrnstein  &  Murray  (1994)  presented  social  argument  based  on   meritocracy:  society  in  which  people  with  most  merit  gain  the  most  privilege   &  status     o Concluded  -­‐>  differences  among  races  were  substantial  &  resistant  to   change   o Argued  -­‐>  why  should  the  public  spend  time  &  resources  trying  to   compensate  for  the  differences  with  minority  scholarships,  Head  Start   programs  and  other  interventions?     o Very  good  reasons  to  disagree  -­‐>  differences  in  social  class,  rather   than  genetic  heritage  may  actually  be  responsible  for  disparity  in   intelligence  scores     • Should  not  assume  that  genetic  patterns  that  contribute  to  particular  race   also  account  for  differences  in  intelligence     o Confirmation  bias  -­‐>  if  you  believe  something  is  true,  then  you  are   likely  to  interpret  a  correlation  in  a  way  that  supports  your  conviction     o E.g.  One  researcher  believes  men  are  genetically  more  intelligent  than   women  on  average,  while  another  researcher  believes  tests  are  biased   to  favor  men.  If  these  researchers  discover  that  men  score  higher  on  a   new  intelligence  test,  both  -­‐>  more  likely  to  say  “I  told  you  so!”  The   data  actually  supports  both  individuals’  positions,  even  though  they   have  opposite  beliefs.     ▯ First  researcher  says  men  score  higher  because  they’re  more   intelligent     ▯ Second  researcher  says  men  &  women  are  equally  intelligent,   but  tests  are  biased     • Reasons  that  might  explain  why  ethic  groups  differ  in  intelligence  scores     o Genetic  factors     o Educational  history     o Cultural  value  placed  on  education     • Children  who  have  been  adopted  into  a  life  that  includes  an  enriched   environment  show  increases  in  IQ  scores     • Test  scores  not  pure  measures  of  a  persons  knowledge/  intelligence     o Social  context  &  personal  experiences  &  beliefs  about  mental  abilities   may  be  contributing  factors  to  such  scores     • Carol  Dweck  (2002)  -­‐>  responded  to  “Why  smart  people  can  be  so  stupid”     o Entity  theory:  the  belief  that  intelligence  is  a  fixed  characteristic  &   relatively  difficult  (or  impossible)  to  change     Helen  Li     PSYA02H3   o Incremental  theory:  the  belief  that  intelligence  can  be  shaped  by   experience,  practice,  &  effort   • Stereotype  threat:  when  people  are  aware  of  stereotypes  about  their  social   group,  they  may  fear  being  reduced  to  that  stereotype     o E.g.  math  classroom,  a  female  student  might  experience  a  subtle   reminder  of  gender  stereotypes  (perhaps  just  having  a  male  teacher/   overhearing  comments  from  peers)  &  effect  -­‐>  distraction  &  test  score   that  underestimates  her  true  ability       • Over  long  term  -­‐>  such  experiences  may  be  incorporated  into  ones  self-­‐ concept  -­‐>  disidentification     o African  American  students  -­‐>  had  similar  test  scores  to  White   students,  but  over  time  became  separated  from  their  White   counterparts  by  achievement  gap   • As  a  major  exam  approaches,  a  teacher  who  is  hoping  to  reduce  stereotype   threat  &  promote  an  incremental  theory  of  intelligence  would  most  likely  let   students  know  that  hard  work  is  the  best  way  to  prepare  for  the  exam     Chapter  10:  Life  Span  Development   10.1:  Methods,  Concepts,  and  Prenatal  Development   • Social  behavior  due  to  social  and  cultural  groups     • Humans  develop  behavioral  traits  easier  when  they  are  younger  and  
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