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Finals Notes - Lectures.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

PSYA02 Final Notes Chapter 15: Social Psychology imitation & conformity - want to be liked (way we dress, way we present ourselves) bystander interference - Kitty Genovese 1964 case; myth & reality; if it was just you bystander effect - interpreting the situation (correct vs. incorrect) - diffusion of responsibility (should I help? …) - the more people around not doing anything; the more you don’t help social facilitation and loafting - performance get better when you’re watched at easy tasks (Facilitation) - when others are present, common social loafting.. not pulling weight commitment - “if you’re in for a dime, you’re in for a dollar”; once you make a small commitment, it is very likely to make a large commitment in the future attractiveness - want to be liked by attractive people; nice to attractive people; favouring attractiveness - Kulka and Kessler (1978) “mock jury” study; attractive people awarded more money than unattractive authority - Milgram (1963) study; how many shocks will you give before you refuse & stand up to the lab person? - if you can see  less shocks & if you can’t see  more shocks (315-450 V) - 2/3 people went all the way to the end since there was someone looking over them (shocking!) group polarization – exaggeration during a discussion preceding a decision - informational influence: you hear it, mass agreement - repeated exposure: you hear it more than once - normative influence: groupthink - Whyte in Fortune (1952); whole group working towards something through rationalized conformity - Janis (1972); cohesive group with shared beliefs, isolation, strong and powerful leader, provocative context & external threat; coercive action  either quietly agree or support Chapter 16: Lifestyle, Stress, and Health cultural evolution - today: rich male > strong male evolution, lifestyles & animal research - bad/unhealthy lifestyle should have lower reproductive success (will get weeded out); selected against - health does not really matter to the older generation (passed the reproductive age) nutrition - how humans eat affect lifestyle  heart disease & cancer from high fat foods - life expectancy is dropping because people are getting fat (drop by five years in next decade) reward timing and self-control - high fat food is not scarce; desire for meat, sweets, deep fried mars bars… - sometimes able to choose long term reward contingencies over short term (e.g. safe sex) - marshmallow test (willpower); those who were able to wait were less likely to suffer from behavioural problems, 210 points higher on SAT (gratification delayers) peripheral nervous system - not a part of the brain; the strings (puppet) to control the rest of the body PSYA02 Final Notes - when it kicks in, your muscles are ready for action; heart rate, blood pressure, blood sugar increases - general adaptation syndrome  must put up with someone raises stress; chronic stress is troublesome (not built for it) - when in synthetic mode  health effects (ulcers, back problems), liver disease, hair loss, low libido… the mind-body issue - can create situations that cause stress; can be positive, too cope with stress (amygdala recognizes the line as a threat) - social support; prayers, other people can take care of them, you’re not alone @ exam - aerobic exercise; situation without reaction - cognitive re-appraisal; get worked up about things they shouldn’t get worked up about, look at it from their perspective (if they are trying to help or just anal) relaxation training - sympathetic and parasympathetic system cannot be simultaneously active - learn to flip the switch & relax  can’t be stressed & relax @ same time stress inoculation training (SIT) - conceptualization; learn about stress & coping, appraising situations - skills acquisition & rehearsal; problem solving, emotional regulation & self-control, maladaptive responses as cues - app & follow through; imagery rehearsal over difficult situations, apply coping skills to unexpected Chapter 17: The Nature and Causes of Psychological Disorders history - variability in how humans react to “strange” people - witches work against Christian goals (burnt), fear of the different abnormal  behavioural norms - if not causing any friction, then it is tolerable (or celebrated, e.g. michael jordan) - maladaptive when it becomes more of a mental disorder (e.g. cannot hold a job, trouble with family, social outcasts or problematic interactions with others) perspectives on psychological disorders - psychodynamic: Freud imagined id, ego, superego to balance; when psychic conflict is too strong for defence mechanisms to deal with in healthy ways  distort reality, early developmental stage - medical: 18/19 century, asylums are bad; treat like disease with patient care to help; treat mental disorders like physical illnesses; biological o reflect chemical imbalances, drugs can counter, genetic links to mental diseases - cognitive-behavioural: maladaptive behaviours are learned; environmental factors o current reinforcement contingencies - humanist: positive self-regard; people have intrinsic value, achieve unique potential - socio-cultural: normal in one culture, abnormal in another - biopsychosocial: interaction of biological, psychological, and sociological factors o “stress diathesis model”; environmental triggers genetic predispositions, major stressor triggers the symptoms  genotype to phenotype classifying disorders - Broca; grouping symptoms to learn cause - categorizing and labeling of mental disorders; prejudice, negative stereotypes - DSM-IV-TR (5 axis) to diagnose mental disorders; clinical, personality, physical, severity of recent stress, global assessment of functioning being sane in an insane place PSYA02 Final Notes - treatment is getting better; voices going away; 2 months disorders in childhood - ADHD (3-7%); inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity  constantly distracted o cerebral cortices develop slower o motor cortices develop quicker - autism (spectrum); poor development of social interactions & communication, limitations of activity o social cues are over-stimulating, prefer to be alone o can be completely unresponsive, non-empathetic o other abilities are enhanced (e.g. math, memory for details) somatoform disorders: consistently complain of bodily health problems which appear to have no physiological basis - somatization: chronic, wide range of health issues (13/35 symptoms), obsessed o hypochondriasis; specific and focused & extreme, ads with symptoms… - conversion: blindness, deafness, loss of feeling, paralysis (neurological)  do things that way o very extreme, associated with psychological trigger; in line with Freud’s theory o malingering; faking it for benefits (such as insurance) anxiety disorders - panic attacks: periods of acute terror that lasts from minutes to hours, reality is surreal (amygdala) o s
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