psyb10 final exam notes.docx
psyb10 final exam notes.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Elizabeth Page- Gould

Overview + methods of social psychology Social psychology o The scientific study of the way in which peoples thoughts feelings and behaviors are influenced by the real or imagined presence of other people How other people affect how we think feel and act ABCs of social psychology o Affect Emotions Feelings Mood o Behavior Verbal action Nonverbal action o Cognition Thought Sensation Perception Processing Memory o ABC Affect emotion Behavior verbal + nonverbal action Cognition thought + sensation Hypothetico-deductive scientific method o Examine past knowledge / research o Form theory o Operationalize theory into hypothesis o Test hypothesis o Revise theory Variables o Dependent variable Outcome o Independent variable Predictor Only implies causation when manipulated Kurt Lewin o Father of social psychology Research interest Perception + cognition Dyadic interactionism Research designs Correlational designs o Key features Two dependent variables No experimental manipulation Random sampling o Statistical analysis Correlation Regression Bayesian o Proper interpretation Covariance Prediction o No causality Quasi-experimental designs o Key features Defined predictor and outcome Independent and dependent variables Independent variable not manipulated Known groups independent variable E.g. sex / ethnicity / etc Stratified random sampling Comparison / control group o Statistical analysis Correlation Regression Bayesian o Proper interpretation Covariance and prediction o Discuss differences, but no causality Experimental designs o Key features Manipulated independent variables Random assignment to condition Comparison / control group o Statistical analysis Regression Bayesian o Proper interpretation Independent variable causes dependent variable Social cognition Social cognition o Thinking about social objects Social object A physical object that has the ability to engage in social cognition Social cognition basics o Thinking Automatic Low effort thinking Nonconscious Unintentional Involuntary Effortless Controlled High effort thinking Conscious Intentional Voluntary Effortfull Perception o Becoming aware of something through the senses Pre-attentive processes o Rapid processing of complex scene Rapid = <250ms Complex = large, multielement display of information o Something that catches your eye or pops out to you Gaze detection o We tend to look at what looks back at us Processing / encoding o Encoding Selecting information from the environment and storing it in memory Encode environment memory Attention Selective perception o Visual attention What is attractive to us Schemas o Mental structures used to organize knowledge about social world around themes or objects Representations of knowledge Efficient processing Guide attention Memory o Race + weapons shooter task People were more likely to misidentify a tool as a gun when it was preceded by a black face than when a white face o Shoot or dont shoot task Half white Half black Both carrying non threatening objects o Camera o Phone Participants were especially likely to pull the trigger when the person in a picture was black, regardless of the fact that he was not holding a gun Most errors shooting an unarmed black person Least errors shooting an armed black person Function of schemas o To fill in the blanks Schemas help when we encounter into that can be interpreted a number of ways, because they reduce ambiguity Schemas as memory guides o Tend to influence the way we remember things o People are more likely to remember info consistent to their schemas Accessibility o At forefront of mind Used Persistence of schemas o ??? Perseverance effect o Finding that peoples beliefs about themselves and the social world persist even after supporting evidence these beliefs discredited Self fulfilling prophecy o People have an expectation about what another person is like, which influences how they act towards that person, which causes the person to behave consistently with original expectations They think im smart Treat me like im smart I must prove that im smart Snyder / tanke / berscheid (1977) o How does attractiveness shape our interactions?
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