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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ella Daniel

Chapter 1 Quiz1In a debate about the importance of nature versus nurture James Mark Baldwin would say thatait is impossible to determine whether nature or nurture is more important in developmentbthe environment and the childs own characteristics are equally vital to developmentcbiological factors such as intelligence determine the outcome of developmentdenvironmental influences are the most crucial factors in a childs development2John Locke viewed the child asaa blank slatebborn with an innate plan for orderly healthy growthcnaturally endowed with a sense of right and wrongda noble savage3In the dynamic systems perspective what does it mean when we say a system is dynamicaIt is allencompassingbIt is complexcIt is integrateddIt is always in motion4Dr Tus flowchart tracks the steps children use to enter an ongoing play group Dr Tu is using theapproachabehavior modificationbpsychoanalyticccognitivedevelopmentaldinformationprocessing5Adults within Africas Kung society rarely interact with infants while they are exploring objects independently However they become highly vocal when a baby offers an object to another person becauseathey do not believe that children should play with natural objects such as twigs and rocksbthe Kung members are forbidden to exchange objectscthey consider objects as things to be possessed rather than shareddtheir culture emphasizes interpersonal rather than physical aspects of existence6Kung children are taught the importance offrom a very young ageasharingbsurvival instinctsccooperationdsaving resources7Dynamic systems researchers attempt to find out how children attain new levels of organization by studying their behaviorawhen interacting with peersbwhen collaborating with adultscwhile they are in transitiondwhile they are in a state of disequilibrium8Rubys father taught her to tie her shoes by giving her detailed instructions Now when Ruby ties her shoes by herself she repeats these instructions aloud According toRuby has internalized her fathers instructions to guide her own thoughts and help acquire new skillsathe dynamic systems approachbVygotskys sociocultural theorycPiagets cognitivedevelopmental theorydBronfenbrenners model9 is linked to many positive outcomes including higher academic achievement fewer behavior problems and a reduced risk of drug and alcohol useaBrain plasticitybFrequency of shared family mealscHigh socioeconomic statusdEnrichment during the sensitive period10Professor Santiago regards child development as mostly a discontinuous process Professor Santiagos belief is consistent withacognitivedevelopmental theorybsocial learning theorycthe informationprocessing approachdethology11By stating that children are influenced by nature theorists mean thatinfluences developmentahereditybthe social worldcthe physical worlddexposure to pleasant natural surroundings12Leonard and his best friend Anthony grew up in a rundown crimeridden innercity neighborhood By age 10 each had experienced years of family conflict Both dropped out of high school and had runins with the law However at age 30 Leonard is a police officer and Anthony is in prison Leonard illustrates the concept ofacontinuous developmentbdiscontinuous developmentcresiliencedplasticity13A child with an easygoing disposition is more likely than an emotionally reactive child toareact violently to strangersbwear down the patience of caregiverscbe optimistic and adapt to change easilydbecome excessively shy by adolescence14Children whotend to be more resilientahave difficulty inhibiting negative impulsesbgrow up with siblingscare easygoing and sociabledattend private schools15Which group has the highest poverty rateaNativeAmerican childrenbHispanicAmerican childrencCaucasianAmerican childrendAfricanAmerican children16What is necessary for welfare reform to succeed in promoting childrens developmentaIt must result in a more adequate standard of livingbIt must make families selfsufficientcIt must guarantee that fulltime work is available for parentsdIt must limit the amount of time a family can remain on welfare17Which of the following cultural values has slowed the development of policies that provide publicly supported benefits to all familiesaan emphasis on collectivism over individualismbseparation of church and statecthe belief that public funds should be reserved for education and national securityda view of the family that places responsibility for child care and rearing wholly with the parents18Which period of development is unique to contemporary youths in industrialized nationsamiddle childhoodbemerging adulthoodcadolescencedmiddle adulthood19Marzannes body has become longer and leaner and she has become more selfcontrolled and selfsufficient Marzannes use of language is expanding at an astounding pace Marzanne is also establishing ties with peers Marzanne is probably in theperiod of developmentaadolescencebinfancy and toddlerhoodcmiddle childhooddearly childhood20Because of the combined efforts of psychologists sociologists anthropologists and biologists child development isainterdisciplinarybappliedcscientificdcontemporary21In an experiment with Little Albert Watson demonstrated thatcould be applied to childrens behavioraoperant conditioningbclassical conditioningcmodelingdbehavior modification22According to the behaviorist perspectiveamodeling is a powerful source of developmentbfavorable development results from a balance between innate desires and environmental constraintscchildren actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore the worldddirectly observable eventsstimuli and responsesare the appropriate focus of study23The biological concept ofis central to Piagets cognitivedevelopmental theoryaequilibriumbadaptationcmodificationdevolution24What is one reason that the psychoanalytic perspective is no longer in the mainstream of child development researchaThe psychoanalytic perspective underestimates the importance of the infant and toddler yearsbPsychoanalytic theorists have not used individual case studies in their researchcThe psychoanalytic perspective discounts the role of nurture in shaping a childs developmentdPsychoanalytic ideas are too vague to test empirically25In Eriksonspsychosocial stage of development the young person forms a personal identity by exploring values and vocational goalsaintimacy versus isolationbidentity versus role confusioncidentity versus stagnationdindustry versus inferiority
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