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PSYB45 Final Exam Notes Chapters(5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 27, 28).docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Amanda Uliaszek

PSYB45 – BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION EXAM NOTES Chapter 5: Reinforcement: Positive & Negative - Natural Reinforcers: happen as a normal part of every day events and are not planned or given systematically to affect behaviour - Automatic Reinforcement: behaviour produces reinforcer directly without other people playing a role - Programmed Reinforcer: provided within a program of reinforcement with goal of increasing or strengthening specific behaviours - Unconditioned Reinforcer: function as reinforcer even when there is no learning involved (i.e. pain, hunger, thirst) - Conditioned Reinforcer: stimuli that did not have ability to strengthen behaviour until they became reinforcing as a result of learning - Clark Hull – proposed biological needs produce unpleasant internal drives (i.e. hunger) which are reduced by performing behavior that leads to an unconditioned reinforcer - Butler – Put monkeys in a cage that prevented them from seeing out; trained to open the door which showed them an empty laboratory room; door opening occurred at higher rates when there was a moving stimuli in the laboratory room - Rats trained to run to water; those who received sugar-water ran 6 times faster than regular water - Electrodes placed in rat’s brain; would perform response at extremely high rates only when stimulated in a particular area o the brain (septal area) - Three properties of reinforcers may make them reinforcing o Provide sensory stimulation o Involve high-probability behaviours o Have specific physiological effects - Premack Principle: One reason consequences are reinforcing is that they involve performing high-probability behaviours , and these activities will work as reinforcers only for less frequent behaviours - Response Deprivation Hypothesis: using a high-probability behaviour as a reward makes that behaviour contingent on performing an infrequent behaviour; thereby restricting or depriving the person of their usual opportunities to perform the behaviour. - Social Reinforcer: consequences consisting of interpersonal acts o Three main advantages: administered easily and quickly; can be given immediately after target behaviour; they occur naturally in every day life - Motivating Operations (MOs): procedures that temporarily alter the effectiveness of a consequence on behaviour and performance of behaviours that normally lead to those consequences Chapter 6: Extinction - Extinction: procedure or condition in which a previously reinforced response no longer receives reinforcement, and it is a process hereby the rate and force in performing the no longer reinforced behaviour decreases - Extinction Burst: temporary increase in frequency and magnitude when reinforcement fails to occur - When using extinction behaviour analysts often reinforce actions of two types: o Competing Response: action that is incompatible or interferes with performance of a target behaviour PSYB45 – BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION EXAM NOTES o Alternative Behaviour: behaviour that is dissimilar to and can take the place of the target behaviour as a desirable act, but the actions aren’t incompatible and can occur together - Spontaneous Recovery: reappearance of an extinguished behaviour o Main factor seems to be passage of time between periods of extinction o Two conditions can lead to spontaneous recovery  Placing another behaviour on extinction can cause a previously extinguished response to occur  May happen because antecedents that were present when the behaviour had been reinforced in the past are present again. - In renewal the main factor is context in which conditioning and extinction occurred o If the behaviour occurs with certain external and internal stimuli present; and extinction is carried out without them present; renewal may happen when extinction session switches to a context that has stimuli that are either like those present in conditioning or are new - In reinstatement, the main factor leading to reappearance of extinguished behaviour is that without performing the behaviour, the individual is exposed to the same stimuli that had originally reinforced the behaviour - Intermittent Reinforcement is more resistant to extinction than Continuous Reinforcement - By reinforcing alternative or competing behaviours; we can reduce problems of extinction burst; aggression by client; and spontaneous recovery - Behaviour extinguishes faster when people are told their responses will no longer be reinforced. Chapter 7: Punishment - Natural Punisher: happen spontaneously as part of every day life naturally, not planned, or given systematically - Programmed Punisher: consequences that are planned and used systematically with goal of decreasing behaviour - Unconditioned Punisher: decrease a behaviour on which they are contingent even though they were not learned (i.e. pain) - Conditioned Punisher: stimuli that did not have the ability to suppress behaviour until they developed this function through learning - Reprimands: disapproving statements - Overcorrection: punishment technique that requires person to engage in aversive activities that correct or are the opposite of the undesirable target behaviour when the misbehaviour occurs o Restitution: correcting the effects of misbehaviour and restoring the environment, usually to a condition better than it was before the undesired behaviour o Positive Practice: when misbehaviour occurs, the person must repeatedly perform an appropriate or useful alternative behaviour or competing response to the misbehaviour - Time-Out: moving person to an environment less reinforcing; can be fairly short, 15min is usually effective, usually 1 minute per year of age o Three kinds of timeout: isolation (removed from environment); Exclusion (removed from opportunities for reinforcement); Non-exclusion (removed from reinforcement, but not opportunities) Chapter 8: Antecedents: Stimulus Control PSYB45 – BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION EXAM NOTES - Antecedents can have two functions: motivational (affects effectiveness of consequence for a behaviour) and discriminative (distinguishing the stimulus from others because we have learned it lead to a particular type of consequence - Discriminative Stimulus: cue that sets the occasion for a particular response and signals that the response will be followed by a particular consequence - Establishing Operations: a procedure that increases the effectiveness of a particular consequence on performance of a target behaviour, which enhances the motivational function of the antecedent conditions - Discrimination Training: teaching procedure where a consequence is administered or a particular behaviour when a specific stimulus is present but not when another is present - Stimulus Generalization: We respond in the same way we do for a discriminative stimulus for other stimuli that are similar to the discriminative stimulus - Stimulus Equivalence: two or more physically different stimuli come to serve the same purposes and are used interchangeably. - Generalization Gradient: The less similar the stimuli is from the discriminative, the less likely the target behaviour will occur in presence of it. - Stimulus Control: Extent to which an antecedent can influence the performance of a specific behaviour o Several Factors influence the development of stimulus control  Paying attention to stimuli we are training as discriminative  Training stimulus is prominent  Task is straightforward enough  Contingencies stated in words the person can understand Chapter 9: Motivation - Motivation divided into two parts: Drives (unconditioned, biologically based) and Motives (partially learned, socially and psychologically based) - Motives can be specific or broad; Broad motives are like personality traits - Desire to change is considered a motive - Behaviour Analytic view focuses on ways to manipulate motivation as an antecedent o Current approach began with journal article by Jack Michael in which he outlined set of ideas on motivational functions of antecedents (early version of Establishing Operations) - Motivating Operations o Value-Altering Effect: changing effectiveness of consequence o Behaviour-Altering Effect: changing the performance of behaviours o Establishing Operation: increase effectiveness of reinforcer or punisher o Abolishing Operation: decrease effectiveness of reinforcer or punisher o Evocative Effect: Increases behaviour o Abative Effect: Decrease Behaviour - Unconditioned Motivating Operations: have inborn value-altering effects on consequences (not learned; i.e. food and water deprivation are UMO) PSYB45 – BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION EXAM NOTES - Conditioned Motivating Operations: alter a consequence’s effectiveness as a result of prior learning - Can create MO by changing value of consequence (by altering what person can do with reinforcer; or by publicly posting performance info) Chapter 10: Shaping - Shaping: procedure in which performance of a specific behaviour improves because higher and higher criteria are required for successive instances of reinforcement - Successive Approximations: sequence of behaviours in which the responses become closer and closer to the form and quantity of a well-formed target behaviour o Each approximation is called a step - Qualitative (Topographical) Shaping: successively higher standards for performance pertain to degree to which responses look, sound or feel like well-formed behaviour - Quantitative Shaping: setting criteria for reinforcement to increase or decrease the quantity of behaviour generally by changing frequency, duration or magnitude - Before conducting shaping procedure, three tasks must be completed o Describe behavioural goal o Identify the starting response o Develop tentative and flexible plan for the steps we expect to apply - Three guidelines for the gaps between steps o Don’t advance to next step until current is mastered o If behaviour deteriorates because advanced too quickly, restart from an earlier step o Don’t make gaps too small or task may become boring - Three shortcuts for shaping: o Physical guidance o Pictures of behaviour or its product o Modeling the behaviour Chapter 11: Shortcut Stimulus Control Methods - Prompts: stimuli that supplement the desired or normal discriminative stimulus for a correct behaviour ; can be grouped into Response or Stimulus prompts - Response Prompts: the behaviour analyst makes a response as a supplement to the stimulus to induce performance of target behaviour o Physical Guidance Prompt: manually moving part of the person’s body through the desired action or sequence o Verbal Prompt: words that induce a specific behaviour o Gestural Prompt: physical motions that the target person previously learned as discriminative stimulus for specific behaviours o Modelling Prompts: the antecedent is the modelled action which demonstrates how and induces the person to perform the behaviour - Stimulus Prompts: involve altering the normal antecedent in some physical way by changing something (within-stimulus prompt) or by adding something (extra-stimulus prompt) o Pictorial Prompts: pictures to alter the normal antecedent o Auditory Prompts: sounds other than words the person previously learned as discriminative stimuli for particular behaviours o Environmental Prompts: alters physical surroundings PSYB45 – BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION EXAM NOTES - Fading: gradually removing or changing a prompt so that it becomes more and more like the normal antecedent for the behaviour - Errorless learning: fading is introduced gradually enough so that the person makes few or no errors while performing the task - Increasing Assistance: for each trial, it starts with just the discriminative stimulus to see if person will respond correctly ; if not then minimal prompt given; increasing assistance until level is reached - Delayed Prompting : normal discriminative stimulus and response prompt presented together initially, and thereafter the prompt is delayed following presentation of discriminative stimulus Chapter 12: Chaining Behaviour - Behavioural Chain: complex activity with links that occur in certain order and usually include motor responses; each step consists of a S and a response. - Task Analysis: The process of identifying the antecedents and responses and all required sequences that make up a behavioural chain; can be done in 3 ways o Perform task themselves o Watch someone else perform the task o Ask someone who is an expert in the task to describe the chain - Three main methods used to teach behavioural chains o Forward Chaining: teaching chain one link at a time starting from beginning; performing a link leads to reinforcement, and then successive links needed o Backward Chaining: teaching one link at a time in reverse; last link in chain always leads to reinforcement, but each trial the client performs one more task in the chain by himself o Total Task Presentation: teaching all links together as a full sequence rather than teaching separately - Forward or Backwards works better for people with developmental disabilities; or when task is complex - For chains with less than 10 steps, total task should work just as well or better than forward or backward chaining - Total task works best when target person can already perform many of the links in the chain; but three reservations about this o Severely retarded show disruptive behaviour when trained this way o For chains in which the last link is particularly difficult, backwards chaining may be best o In the case that performing the last link will help with performance of earlier links, backwards chaining would be the best Chapter 14: Managing Antecedents - Procedures to manage antecedents involve manipulating the target person’s physical or social stimuli to encourage desired behaviour; 4 basic ways o Develop or introduce new cues o Modify existing cues o Manipulate MO o Manipulate effort needed to make response - Can manipulate S to promote desirable behaviours in two ways PSYB45 – BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION EXAM NOTES o Correct behavioural deficit (Can teach a new S by discrimination training or shortcut stimulus control methods,, particularly prompting) or o Increase competing response or alternative behaviour to replace the problem behavioural excess - Non-Contingent Reinforcement: procedure in which a known reinforcer for the target behaviour is delivered on a periodic schedule that is independent of the occurrence of that behaviour o This s
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