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psyb45 exam notes -final.docx

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Amanda Uliaszek

Chapter 5Reinforcement Positive and Negative law of effect satisfying consequences such as rewards or escape from unpleasant circumstances strengthen stimulusresponse connections gradually in the process of learning DEFINING REINFORCEMENT reinforce strengthen increase or make more pronounced reinforcement the process in which a consequence of a behaviour strengthens that behaviour making it more likely to occur in the futureconsequence is contingent on the behaviouroccurs only when the behaviour occurs reinforcer is the objector event that serves as the consequence in reinforcementbasically something someone wants or finds pleasant or satisfyingNATURAL AND PROGRAMMED REINFORCEMENT natural reinforcersconsequences of a behaviour that occur spontaneously as a normal part of every day events and are not planned and given systematically to affect a behaviour even though they doie when pushing a switch illuminates the room behaviour pushing switch consequence illumination OR telling a joke is reinforced by the enjoyment other people expressAnother form of natural reinforcement is automatic reinforcement in which a behaviour produces a reinforcer directly without other ppl playing a role ie scratching an itch and making a sound that is pleasing to oneself programmed reinforcers consequences provided within a program of reinforcement with the goal of increasing or strengthening specific behaviourie high grades for good work in schoolwages for satisfactory work on a jobPOSITIVE AND NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT positive reinforcement the consequence involves presenting or adding a stimulus called positive reinforcers after the individual has performed a response negative reinforcement when the negative pattern occurs a stimulus is subtractedfor example if a boy has a tantrum in a store bc his mother refused to buy him candy and she relents the tantrum stops In this example both ppls behaviour received reinforcement The boys tantrum behaviour resulted in positive reinforcement candy but the mothers behaviour of relenting received negative reinforcement making her more likely to relent for future tantrums In negative reinforcement the consequence of the behaviourin this case relenting and buying candyinvolves decreasing or removing an aversive stimulus the tantrum other examples include drinking alcohol to reduce unpleasant feelings or eating foods to reduce feelings of hunger or taking an aspirin to to decrease physical painso basically youre adding something to either increase a behaviour positive reinforcement or to decrease or remove a behaviour negative reinforcement positive and negative reinforcement each result in a relatively desirable state of affairs for the recipientie child got candy and mother got an end to the tantrumCONDITIONED AND UNCONDITIONED REINFORCEMENT unconditioned reinforcers also known as primary reinforcers are consequences that function as reinforcers even when the individual has had no learning history w themie food water warmth and reduction of pain when individual is hungry thirsty cold or in painconditioned reinforcers also known as secondary reinforcers are stimuli that did not have the ability to strengthen behaviour until they became reinforcing as a result of learningie money can be served as a conditioned reinforcerit probably developed its ability to strengthen behaviour for you by being associated w other stimuli that were already reinforcing such as when you paid for clothes or foodConcept Check 51 1 Increases 2 present 3 applying ointment to injured area to reduce pain 4adding and subtracting 5 candy 6 unconditioned reinforcer 7 getting something desirable or satisfyingTYPES OF POSITIVE REINFORCERS to choose reinforcers for an intervention to change operant behaviour one must be aware of the types of reinforcers available TANGIBLE AND CONSUMABLE REINFORCERS tangible means material objects we can perceive consumable means things we can eat or drinkthey both include conditioned and unconditioned responsesie when children at mealtimeObey their parents instructions to wash their hands before they may sit at the table and eat food is the reinforcer for their behaviour ACTIVITY REINFORCERS using high probability behaviours ie drawing for little kids as a reinforcer for a specific behaviour Premack PrinciplePremack proposed that one reason consequences are reinforcing is that they involve performing highprobability behaviours and these activities will work as reinforcers only for less frequent behavioursie toothbrushing at a summer camp increased when the campers opportunity to go swimming was contingent on brushing their teethpotential activity reinforcers can be identified by monitoring ppls naturally occurring activitiessee which ones they choose most often when they have a free choiceit is unclear as to why using highprobability behaviours increase low probability behaviour one hypothesis proposed the explanation called the response deprivation hypothesisaccording to this view using a highprobability behaviour for instance playing a game as a reward makes that activity contingent on performing an infrequent behaviour doing chores thereby restricting or depriving the person of his or her usual opportunities to perform the highprobability behaviourperson increase doing chores to overcome restricted opportunities to do the restricted behaviour playing a gameSOCIAL REINFORCERS social reinforcers are consequences consisting of interpersonal acts that strengthen ones behaviour as when our behaviour receives praise attention or a smile nod or affectionate touch acts given directly or indirectly such as in a letter of appreciation 3 advantages to using social reinforcers for improving ppls behaviour1 can be administered easily and quickly in almost any setting2 can be given immediately after the target behaviour enhancing effectiveness3 they occur naturally in ppls everyday lives as a result may continue to reinforce target behaviour after the intervention endsFEEDBACK feedback information that assesses or guides peoples performance can either be positive indicating our behaviour is correct or negative indicating corrections are needed occurs naturally in peoples lives doesnt interrupt ongoing behaviour and can be administered easily quickly and immediately in almost any setting combining feedback with reward usually works better a special feedback technique called biofeedback helps ppl gain voluntary control over body processes by using equipment to give them continuous and specific information about the current functioning of a physiological processTOKENS tokens are conditioned reinforcers that are like money because they can be accumulated and exchanged for goods or privileges which are called backup reinforcersbackup reinforcers are some form of tangible consumable social or activity rewards tokens have the advantages ofa bridging the delay bw performing the target behaviour and getting tangible consumable or activity reinforcers for itb offering the possibility of a variety of backup reinforcers thereby maintaining the tokens value at a consistently high level whilst designing a token reinforcement system keep in mind that criteria for earning tokens should be neither too easy or too difficultthe number of tokens needed to buy backup reinforcers should be reasonable FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF REINFORCEMENTREWARD VALUE AND TIMING the degree to which an ind Values a specific consequence determines how likely it is to reinforce a behaviourthe greater its value the greater its strengthening effect on a behaviour what aspects of a reinforcer determine its valuereinforcers may vary in their quantityfor example amount of ice cream ind receivesand quality or character different flavours in positive reinforcement the quantatity and quality of a reinforcer determine its value reward value in negative reinforcement is determined by 2 factors1 Quantitythat is the amount by which the aversive situation is reduced For instance we are more likely to take aspirin to relieve a headache in the future if doing so in the past stopped most or all of the pain rather than just a little2 Intensity of the aversive conditionnegative reinforcement is more effective when the behaviour reduces a very aversive stimulus than when it reduces a milder one when changing someones existing behavior or teaching them a new behaviour one can maximise the effect of reinforcement by delivering it immediately after each and every correct response MOTIVATION cicumstances can increase or decrease a persons motivation and the reward values of a reinforcer
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