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Midterm

Midterm 2 Book Notes.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell
Semester
Summer

Description
Chapter 8 CS. Continuing with Carla, the US (air) was paired with Examples of Respondent Conditioning NS (sound), and the sound became CS. If the sound (CS) Respondent conditioning (involves manipulation of becomes paired with light (a different NS), then light antecedent stimuli; aka Pavlovian or classical may become the new CS. conditioning) is different from operant conditioning Conditioned Emotional Response (CER): an emotional (manipulation of consequences) in that operant looks at CR produced through respondent conditioning. C while respondent looks at A (in the ABC model). Watson’s experiment on Little Albert: Albert (who Example: Carla had a machine that released air that originally didn’t fear rats) was presented with a loud, caused her to blink right after a sound. A few days later, disturbing sound immediately when he was presented she began to blink at the sound, even before the air with a rat. Over time, little Albert became afraid of the blew. Then, the problem was fixed and the machine no rat as he was with the sound. This was a negative CER, longer blew air, yet Carla still blinked every time she but there can also be positive ones. heard the sound. Eventually, she stopped blinking. Respondent Extinction: repeated presentation of the CS Defining Respondent Conditioning without presenting the US. Unconditioned Responses (UR): responses elicited by Spontaneous Recovery: after extinction, if the CS elicits antecedent stimuli even though no conditioning the CR randomly. Usually, the CR is at a smaller occurred (e.g. blink when air is directed at eye; salivate magnitude then. when food is in mouth…). This occurs when an Discrimination and Generalization unconditioned stimulus (US) is presented. Humans Generalization (occurs when a number of similar CSs learned to respond to US because the UR has survival elicit the same CR) vs. Discrimination (CR is elicited by a value. Respondent conditioning occurs when a single CS/a narrow range of CS). Example: Being afraid previously Neutral Stimulus (NS) is paired with a US, of all dogs (generalization) vs. being afraid of a specific causing the NS to become a conditioned stimulus (CS) breed of dogs (discrimination). and elicit a conditioned response (CR). Generalization happens when a stimulus, S1, is Timing of Neutral and Unconditioned Stimuli presented with a US, and S2, S3, and S4 are never Ideally, the US should occur immediately after the onset presented in the absence of US. So, if Maddie is of the NS. The shorter the time, the higher the attacked (US) by a German shepherd (S1 becomes CS), probability that the NS will become a CS. Times: but she never had good experiences with other dogs,  Trace Conditioning: NS precedes US, but NS ends generalization to other dogs would occur. before the US is presented (eye blink example) Generalization would occur stronger if the US was  Delay Conditioning: NS is presented and then US is paired with more of the similar CS (Maddie would have presented before the NS ends. a stronger fear of dogs if she were attacked by more  Simultaneous Conditioning: NS and US are presented than 1 species of dogs). at the same time. Discrimination occurs when S1 is presented with a US,  Backward Conditioning: US is presented before NS but S2, S3 and S4 are presented in the absence of US. So, the sight of one specific breed that caused fear will (most unlikely for conditioning).  Taste Aversion: maybe the only time conditioning can not be associated with other dogs. occur without a close temporal proximity. Example: Factors that Influence Respondent Conditioning Murphy drank spoiled milk, but he didn’t know it was  Nature of US and CS: a more intense stimulus is more spoiled until he started vomiting 15 minutes later. effective as a US; the more intense stimuli are more salient (noticeable) Since then, every time Murphy drinks milk, he gets that nausea and he now hates milk. US: bad milk, UR:  Temporal relationship between CS and US: for the vomiting, NS became CS: any milk and CR is nausea. most effective conditioning, CS should precede US. Higher-Order Conditioning The interval should also be short. Higher-Order Conditioning: occurs when an NS is paired  Contingency CS and US: this means that the CS and US with an already established CS and the NS becomes a should be presented together every trial.  Number of Pairings: the more times the CS and US are Getting Mrs. F to Walk Again: a 75-year-old paired, the stronger the reaction will be (there will be woman had hip surgery and needed physical therapy an increase always), and the harder it will be for (PT) to walk again. The target behavior was for Mrs. F to extinction. However, the CS-US pairing the first time walk independently with her walker. The first step was will produce the strongest reaction. to get Mrs. F to enjoy going to the PT room, the nurse  Previous exposure to the CS: If a person was exposed there gave her a massage every time she came to to the NS before and had no US paired with it, then it reinforce the closest behavior. The nurse then began to will be less likely for the NS to develop into a CS. ask Mrs. F to stand for 1 sec before she can give her the massage. Later it was 15 sec. Then it increased later, DistDnguish between Operant and Respondent An S is different from an antecedent stimulus in until she was able to walk independently. respondent conditioning in that S evokes behaviour Getting Mrs. S to Increase Time Between because the behaviour had been reinforced in its Bathroom Visits: Mrs. S had multiple sclerosis and had presence, but for respondent conditioning, the CS elicits had a bathroom incident once, so now she visits the bathroom more than once an hour. The target behavior a CR because the CS was paired with a US. The result of operant conditioning is to make specific was to wait 2 hours between bathroom trips. The behaviours more likely to occur in the future, but the starting behavior was for her to wait 1 hour between result of respondent conditioning is to develop a CS trips. As reinforcement, she received praise and from a previously NS. approval. The next approximation was to wait 70 minutes, then 90, then 105 then 120. Extinction of respondent occurs when CS and US aren’t paired, and for operant, when behavior no longer In summary, shaping can be used to generate a novel results in a reinforcing consequence. behavior (babbling to speaking in children), reinstate a Usually, the 2 occur together. previous behavior (walking again with Mrs. F) and Respondent Conditioning and Behaviour Modification changing dimension of an existing behavior (Mrs. S’s Usually, people refer to behaviour modification example). techniques for operant behaviours, but when they do How to Use Shaping refer to those techniques for respondent behaviours, Steps: it’s to stop CERs that interfere with functioning. 1. Define target behavior to determine whether/when Chapter 9 the shaping program is successful Defining Shaping 2. Determine whether shaping is the most appropriate An example of shaping: when children babble, the procedure. Shaping is used for the acquisition of a parents get excited at the syllables that resemble novel dimension of a behavior or reinstates a behavior normal language. Eventually, the child babbles these a person is not currently exhibiting. specific syllables, and every time the parents get 3. Identify the starting behavior. It must be one that the excited, he repeats what they got excited over. person already engages in. Shaping: used to develop a target behavior that a 4. Choose the shaping steps. The person must master person does not currently exhibit. It`s defined as each step before moving on to the next, and each step differential reinforcement: successive approximations must be closer to the target behavior. (shaping steps) of a target behavior until person exhibits 5. Choose the reinforcer to use in the shaping procedure. a target behavior; reinforce a closer approximation and The reinforcer must be delivered ASAP, and the extinguish a previous reinforcement. To begin shaping, reinforcer must not be one that can satiate the person you identify the starting behavior (the closest behavior quickly. to the target one). Timing is important; otherwise you 6. Differentially reinforce each successive approximation. may reinforce a different behavior accidentally. Reinforce each instance of the behavior until it occurs Applications of Shaping reliably, then stop reinforcing it and reinforce the next This can be used in rehabilitation settings: step. 7. Move through shaping at a proper pace. Shaping of Problem Behaviours o Extrastimulus Prompts: Adding or removing a Sometimes, problems happen because of shaping. This stimulus to help a person make a correct may result in extinction bursts, which may cause harm discrimination. When the baseball coach is to the individual. Through shaping, the individual may teaching children, drawing a line to tell them where then be reinforced to react with greater extinction they should stand is this type of prompt. s bursts. What is Fading? Some examples of this include showing off (the person Fading: gradual elimination of the prompt as the D has to show more items off to stay ‘on track’), self- behavior continues to occur in the presence of S . injurious behavior that may have started as a mild Teaching isn’t complete until prompts are completely behavior and developed to a more intense one, or in faded and the behavior is completely under the control couple’s arguments (over the course of many of the S . arguments, one spouse would learn to argue longer). Basically, prompting gets the correct behavior to D happen and fading transfers stimulus control into the S Chapter 10 Transfer of Stimulus Control What is Prompting? Transfer of stimulus control: end result; correct Prompts: used to increase the likelihood that a person behavior occurs at the right time without any assistance will engage in the correct behavior at the correct time; (prompts). Ways to do so: stimuli given before or during performance of a  Prompt Fading: most common method response behavior to help it occur so that the teacher can provide prompt is removed gradually across learning trials reinforcement; to help person in the presence of S D until prompt is no longer needed.  Response prompts: intrusive; involve one person o Least-to-most: use least intrusive prompting, and exerting control over another (like in teaching only intrusive ones when necessary. Over several situations): trials, the learner will make the correct response o Verbal Prompt: giving verbal instructions on how before the most intrusive prompt is needed, then it to do something; include instructions, reminders, will keep losing one type of prompt, until rules, questions, hints or other verbal statements. prompting is fully faded. It`s used when trainer o Gestural Prompt: motioning how to do something doesn`t think the learner needs physical prompts (it’s different from modelling in that gestures are and to giver the learner opportunities to act right. not the entire act, just part of it). An example: o Most-to-least: most intrusive behavior first then when teaching kids to play baseball, gestural fades into less intrusive ones. It`s used when prompts are like pointing to the student the trainer believes learner will need a physical prompt location to hit the ball. to engage in correct behavior. o Modeling Prompt: showing how to do something  Prompt Delay: present S , wait for a few seconds, o Physical Prompt: physically guide learner through then if the correct response wasn`t made, prompt is correct behavior; executing all or part of behavior provided. The time delay may be constant or with learner. This aka physical guidance. progressive. For either, the start time is always 0-sec,  Stimulus prompts: involves some change in a stimulus and it increases to give time for learners to act rightly (addition or removal of it) to make a response more before the prompt is given. likely; involves change in S or S to make S more  Stimulus Fading: involves gradually removing the ∆ salient and S less salient: additional stimulus as the response begins to occur; o Within-Stimulus Prompts: Change salience of S or D used when stimulus prompts are used. S . You can change the position, any dimension How to Use Prompting and Transfer (shape, size, color…). For example, if a teacher Steps: were trying to teach students to read one of 2 1. Choose most appropriate prompting strategy. signs, positioning the correct sign closer to the Response prompts are most appropriate for novel student is a type of this prompt. behavior. For people with limited abilities, intrusive the end. Because you provide a reinforcer after each D prompts are more beneficial. response, the outcome of each response (S for next 2. Get learner`s attention. response) becomes a conditioned reinforcer. Artificial 3. Present the S . Learning trial always starts with the reinforcers are used until last component is taught. presentation of the discriminative stimulus.  Total Task Presentation: complex chain of behaviors is 4. Prompt the correct response. taught as a single unit (as opposed to the chaining 5. Reinforce correct behavior procedures above).You use prompting to get the 6. Transfer stimulus control learner to engage in the entire chain of behaviors. You 7. Continue to reinforce unprompted responses. provide reinforcers every time learner performs the One common application of prompting and transfer of task (with or without prompts). This is only useful if stimulus control is to apply it to autistic kids that require the task is not too long or too complex. Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI). A typical o Graduated Guidance: use hand-over-hand teaching sequence is: make eye contact, imitate motor guidance to lead learner through the task; type of movements, imitate actions with objects, and follow prompting for the total task presentation. You use simple instructions… shadowing to guide the hand without physical contact, and physical contact is only reintroduced Chapter 11 when you feel learner is struggling or engaging in Analyzing Stimulus-Response Chains the wrong behavior. Behavioral Chain (aka stimulus response chain): These take less trainer time and involvement: complex behavior consisting of many component  Written Task Analysis: for people who can read; behaviors that occur together in a sequence. trainer presents learner with a list of component Establishing operations tell us why the final reinforcer in behaviors in proper sequence and learner uses the list the chain might be desirable at a certain time to you. to perform the task (e.g. instruction manuals…). These Task Analysis are aka textual prompts. Task Analysis: Breaking the chain down into individual  Picture Prompts: you take pictures of the outcome of stimulus-response components. each behavior or of someone engaging in the behavior If you want to teach a behavioral chain, first thing you in proper sequence. The pictures are used to prompt need to do is establish identify all behaviors necessary. the learner to engage in the behavior in proper Task analysis can be conducted in several ways: (1) sequence. Once learners learn to use the picture watch person behave and record the steps, (2) ask prompts, no more prompting is needed from trainer. professional to explain steps, and (3), perform the task  Video Modeling: Learner watches a video of someone yourself (you get most information from this one engaging in the chain behavior immediately before because you are looking at your own experiences). engaging in the same task. The learner can watch the Chaining procedures: sys
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