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University of Toronto Scarborough
Zachariah Campbell

Chapter 2Observing and Recording BehaviorChapter OutlineDirect and Indirect AssessmentDefining the Target BehaviorsThe Logistics of RecordingThe ObserverWhen and Where to RecordChoosing a Recording MethodContinuous RecordingFrequencyDurationReal time RecordingIntensityLatencyPercentage of OpportunitiesProduct RecordingInterval RecordingPartial IntervalWhole IntervalFrequencywithinintervalTime Sample RecordingChoosing a Recording InstrumentData SheetGolfstroke CounterStop WatchHandheld ComputerBarcode TechnologyCoin TransferTears in PaperRanger BeadsPedometerReactivityInterobserver AgreementChapter SummaryKey TermsPractice TestApplications MisapplicationsChapter 2 Quiz 1Chapter 2 Quiz 2Chapter 2 Quiz 311Ideas for Class Activities1 Engage in a somewhat complex behavior in front of the classroom eg a childs tantrum consisting of multiple behaviors and have students write down a behavioral definition of the behavior they just observed Ask a number of students to read their definitions and discuss the various definitions2 Bring a videotape of a 5 minute segment of someone engaging in a specific behavior for example a habit such as nail biting or a verbal habit such as saying uh while talking Also bring a tape player with an audiotape that signals 10 second intervals Have students practice doing frequency recording frequency within interval recording interval recording and time sample recording Review student results and compare with your own Have students pair up and calculate interobserver agreement from their recordings Answers to Practice Test Questions1Measurement of the target behavior behavioral assessment is important for a number of reasonsFirst measurement of the behavior prior to treatment will provide information that can help you decide whether treatment is necessarySecond behavioral assessment can provide information that helps you choose the best treatmentThird measurement of the target behavior during and after treatment will allow you to determine whether the behavior changed following the implementation of treatment2The four steps involved in a behavior recording plan are1 defining the target behavior2 identifying who when and where to record the behavior3 choosing a recording method4 choosing a recording instrument3A behavioral definition includes active verbs describing specific behaviors that a person exhibitsA behavioral definition differs from a label for a behavior in that a behavioral definition is objective and unambiguousLabels for behaviors are ambiguous they can mean different things to different people because they do not identify specific actions4A behavioral definition of politeness for an individual may read as follows Politeness for Jason entails saying please when making a request saying thank you after a request has been granted and speaking only after another individual has finished speaking5It is important to identify a specific individuals who will record a behaviorThe observers must be trained to identify the occurrence of the target behavior and record the behavior immediatelyThe observer must have the time to observe and record the behavior and must be willing to function as an observer6The observer records the target behavior in specific periods of time called the observation periods7The four dimensions of a behavior that may be recorded in a continuous recording method are1 frequencythe number of times the behavior occurs in an observation period2 durationthe total amount of time the behavior occurs from start to finish3 intensitythe amount of force energy or exertion involved in a behavior12
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