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[PSYB51] Midterm exam notes (Ch.1-4)

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Matthias Niemeier

Ch1 Introduction Sensation and Perception Only own sensory experience is directly accessible to ourselves Sensation Ability to turn detection into private experienceeg Detection of pressure of finger as experience Perception Act of giving meaning to those detected sensation Etienne Bonnot de Condillac Asked readers to imagine the mental life of statue with no sensesConcluded the statue would have no mental life Method used in study of senses1 Threshold 2 Scaling Qualia Private conscious experience of sensation or perception in philosophyNo direct way to experiences others experiences can only know by differences3 Signal detection theory4 Sensory Neuroscience Explain how your perception of world depends on activity of sensory nerves5 NeuroimagingBinocular rivalry Would not see two images together when each presented to each eyeTwo images would vie to dominate one eyes perception Threshold and Dawn of Psychophysic Study of senses if mix of experimental science and philosophy Gustav FechnerScientistphilosopher consider as founder of experimental psychology Wilhelm WundltDebates between Dualism and Materialism Dualism Idea of mind has existence separate from material world of body Materialism Idea of mind is not separated dimensions Physical matter is only thing true and realeg Idea of mind is what the brain doesProposed Panpsychism Idea of mind exist as property of all matter Consciousness or mind is present in all of nature included inanimate thingsProposed Psychophysic The science of defining quantitative relationship between physical and psychological events Describe relation between sensation mind and energy matter that give rise to sensation Used to measure the quantitative measure of consciousness Ernst WeberAnatomist and physiologist interested in touch1Used compass to test out accuracy of sense of touch with smallest distance between 2 points Two point touch threshold Minimum distance at 2 stimulus are just perceptible as separate2Used weight to test out peoples judgment Participants lift one standard weight and used to compare other weight which differed fromFound out ability of detecting difference depended on weight of standard Heavier weight requires bigger differences to detect changesJust noticeable difference JND Smallest detectable difference between 2 stimuli Minimum change in stimulus that enables to be correctly judged as different from reference stimuliDifference threshold Smallest change in stimulus can be detected Smallest change could be detected is always closes to 14 of standard weightWebers Fractions Constant of proportionality in Webers law Different type of measure have own constant ratio for threshold eg Brightness Once recognized by Fechner with mathematical formula Webers LawKConstant proportionI Level of stimulus ISize of detectable differences also stands for JND I can be considered as unit of mind since its smallest unit of changed can perceivedWebers Law Principle describing relationship between stimulus and resulting sensation Objective measurement no calculation compared to Fechners States JND is a constant fraction of the comparison stimulus Fechners Law Principle describing relation between stimulus and resulting sensationStates magnitude of subjective sensationproportionally to logarithm of stimulus intensity S k log RS Psychological sensation equal to logarithm of physical stimulus level log R Describe psychological experience of intensity increases less quickly than actual physical stimulus Some dimensions of sensation violates the law eg Electric shock 2Similar to Einsteinss equation of Emc Invented new ways to measure peoples perception and physical intensity Absolute threshold Minimum amount of stimulation necessary for person to detect stimulus 50 of timeMinimum intensity of stimulus can be detectedPsychophysical Methods to measure absolute threshold 1 Method of constant stimuli Create many stimuli with different low intensities to find tiniest intensity can be detected Stimuli range from rarely to almost always perceivable presented one at the time Stimuli presented in various intensity and randomly Threshold When intensity of stimulus can be detected 50 of time No hard boundaries exist for measuring stimulus with value below just nondetectable 2 Method of limits Experimenter begins with same set of stimuli presented in order of increasingdecreasing intensityPresented ascending order Asked participants to report when they first hear the tone 3 Method of adjustment Similar to methods of limitsSubject is one who steadily increasedecreases intensity of stimulusNot usually used to measure threshold Scaling Methods and Supertasters Magnitude estimation Participants assign values according to perceived magnitudes of stimuliAssigned scaling from different participates are orderly and lawful different in typesStevens power law Relationship between stimulus intensity and sensation bS aI
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