PSYC06 - Midterm 2 Review

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

PSYC06 - Midterm 2 Review Lecture 6 – Respiration Respiratory Measures  The respiration rate is the number of breaths you take in a minute (~12 – 16)  The tidal volume is the volume of air your lungs process per breath (~400 – 500mL)  Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA) – the naturally occurring variation in heart rate that occurs during a breathing cycle. o Physiological basis: The Sinoatrial node fires faster than the heart rate; this difference is the descending influence of the vagus nerve. Respiration interrupts the vagal influence on heart rate. When you inhale, HR goes up; when you exhale, HR goes down. The size of this oscillation reflects the strength of vagal influence. RSA indexes parasympathetic activity. o Calculation: It is calculated with the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) that assesses the degree of oscillation in HR that falls within certain (3) frequency bands of respiration. RSA has a high frequency band of .15 - .4 Hz. o Psychological correlates/meaning: Attention seems to be the key to the relationship between the parasympathetic nervous system and social functioning. When there is focused attention, there is a phasic decrease in RSA. When there is divided attention, there is a phasic increase in RSA. The vagus nerve controls attention, emotional expression, and communication. An increase in RSA is associated with both good and bad forms of social engagement. A high basal RSA is related to being more sensitive to social cues. And both high basal and phasic RSA reactivity have been related to compassion. Analysis and quantification  Scoring; onset of breath and onset of next breath, measuring the amplitude of the inspiratory waveform  Respiratory events: inspiratory time, inspiratory duty cycle (the ratio of inspiratory duration to the total breathing cycle), tidal volume, respiration rate Porges (2007)  Polyvagal Theory & the Social Engagement System: The parasympathetic nervous system evolved to help us navigate complex social situations. The PNS is the newest branch of the ANS. The size of the social groups across species corresponds with the development of the PNS. o 7 key points that summarize the theory 1. The vagal system does not represent a unitary dimension 2. There are two vagal motor systems 3. In mammals, the concept that vagal tone represents a single or summed system may have limited physiological or heuristic value 4. The functional output on the heart by the vagal efferent pathways originating in nucleus ambiguous may be monitored by RSA 5. The magnitude of neurogenetic bradycardia is mediated by the dorsal motor nucleus 6. There is a common cardiopulmonary oscillator 7. Primary emotions are related to autonomic function o 8 key implications of the theory 1. The phylogenetic development of the neural regulation of the heart 2. The functional and structural distinction between the vagal efferent pathways originating in the nucleus ambiguous and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus 3. The identification and adaptive function of three phylogenetically-ordered neural circuits regulating the heart 4. The application of the Jacksonian principle of “dissolution” to explain the sequencing of the response hierarchy 5. A proposed neural process, neuroception that evaluates risk and modulates vagal output via higher brain structures 6. The neuroanatomical and neurophysiological link between the vagal regulation of the heart and the neural regulation of the striated muscles of the face and head 7. The important role that physiological state, via afferent feedback to brain structures, has on reactivity to environmental stimuli 8. The name polyvagal is used to emphasize the diverse features of the vagus that include efferents originating primarily from two source nuclei in the brainstem and the prevalence of afferents o 4 principles that guide the theory on psychophysiological mechanisms of social engagement 1. There is a phylogenetic shift in the regulation of the heart from endocrine communication, to unmyelinated nerves, and finally to myelinated nerves 2. There is a development of opposing neural mechanisms of excitation and inhibition to provide rapid regulation of graded metabolic output 3. A face-heart connection evolved as source nuclei of vagal pathways shifted ventrally from the older dorsal motor nucleus to the nucleus ambiguous. This resulted in an anatomical and neurophysiological linkage between the neural regulation of the heart via the myelinated vagus and the special visceral efferent pathways that regulate the striated muscles of the face and head 4. With increased cortical development, the cortex exhibits greater control over the brainstem via direct (e.g., corticobulbar) and indirect (e.g., corticoreticular) neural pathways originating in motor cortex and terminating in the source nuclei of the myelinated motor nerves emerging from the brainstem (e.g., specific neural pathways embedded within cranial nerves V, VII, IX, X, XI), controlling visceromotor structures (i.e., heart, bronchi, thymus) and somatomotor structures (muscles of the face and head)  The “vagal brake” – The rapid inhibition and disinhibition of vagal tone to the heart that can rapidly mobilize or calm an individual. This is the contribution of the myelinated vagus. By assessing RSA during various challenges it is possible to measure the dynamic regulation of the vagal brake. Lecture 7 – Electrodermal Response Electrodermal Measures – Skin conductance, finger temperature, finger pulse  Skin potential is found by measuring electrical activity at the surface of the skin, with no externally imposed current. It is called the endosomatic technique  Skin conductance is the degree to which your skin conducts electricity. A small current can be passed through the skin from an external source and the resistance to the passage of the current then measured o Physiology and interpretation: Normally, your skin resists electrical current, but this resistance is less effective as sweat increases. It reflects sympathetic nervous system activity but it‟s not a pure measure. It is stimulated by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Arousal o Skin conductance level (SCL): This is the tonic skin conductance, it has values of 2 – 20 microsiemens (µS) o Skin conductance responses (SCR): This is the phasic skin conductance, it has many sub-measures o Non-Specific Skin Conductance Responses (NSSCR): This is the spontaneous skin conductance, there are about 1 – 3 per minute o Eccrine sweat glands: These are the sweat glands on the palms of your hands and feet. They are activated by sympathetic nervous system instead of heat  Finger temperature is the temperature of your finger tips, usually measured in Fahrenheit o Physiology and interpretation: It is mostly affected by the amount of blood in the fingers. It follows a circadian (diurnal) rhythm which fluctuates over the day. Phasic: When the temperature increases it means relaxation, positive arousal; when it decreases it means anxiety, threat, and negative arousal. Tonic: when the temperature begins to fall it means 3.5 hrs before you feel sleepy at night and 5 hrs before your body is objectively sleepy  Finger pulse is measured with a photoplethysmograph (PPG). o Finger pulse amplitude: The volume of blood at finger tips o Finger pulse transit time: The time it takes for heart to move blood to the peripheries. ECG is needed to calculate it, (the time between Q-point on ECG and the max. amplitude of PPG, in milliseconds) o Physiology and interpretation: The amplitude is the proxy for blood pressure in the peripheries and the transit time reflects the resistance of the cardiovascular system to the movement of blood. The finger temperature and pulse cannot distinguish the roles of sympathetic and parasympathetic branches. When there is an increase it means vascular dilation and challenge; when there is a decrease it means vascular constriction and threat Cooper (1959) – Prejudice is an emotional attitude and thus should be reflected in physiological arousal  Methods: neutral group, most-liked group, most-disliked group. They all listened to positive (complimentary) and negative (derogatory) statements about 4 groups that they ranked 1 , 10 , 11 , and 20 while SCR was recorded  Results: People were more reactive to complimentary statements made about most- disliked group than derogatory statements about most-liked group Becahra, Damasio, Tranel, & Damasio (1997)  Somatic marker hypothesis: “Covert” or “non-conscious” biases from the body represent a distinct mechanism of human decision-making  Methods: Normal adults and brain-legion patients played the “Iowa Gambling Task” while three things were measured: Skin conductance responses, participants‟ verbal narratives of their reasoning, and participants‟ behaviour (choice of cards)  Results: Normal controls adopted the winning strategy over time. Skin conductance responses to risky behaviours preceded explicit awareness of the “riskiness”  Conclusions: Physiological (somatic) responses are incorporated into and facilitate effective decision-making Collection  Skin conductance: Place two electrodes on fingers or palms. The exosomatic method is when a small electrical current is passed to the skin from one electrode and it‟s the amount of current read from the other electrode  Finger temperature: Place a reusable electrode sensor on distal phalange of finger  Finger pulse: It is collected with a PPG (photoplethysmograph). Place a reusable electrode sensor on distal phalange of finger, this emits infra
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