Textbook Notes I

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Michael Inzlicht

1 PSYC12 Textbook Notes Chapter 1: Introduction In-group any group with which one affiliates themselves. Any group which one belongs Out-group any group with which one doesnt affiliate themselves, group to which one doesnt belong Minimal group groups formed on arbitrary or random criteria (ex: random assignment) Prejudice a biased evaluation of a group, based on real or imagined characteristics of the group members (allows for both positive and negative) Stereotypes a set of beliefs about the personal attribution of a group of people Defining Stereotyping Lippmanns Stereotype originally from a term to describe a printing process Lippmann use the word stereotype to describe the tendency of people to think of someone or something in similar terms (attributes) based on a common feature shared by each Stereotypes are largely determined by culture in which one lives The Social-Cognitive Definition Brigham (1971) stereotyping is a generalization made about a group concerning a trait attribution, which is considered to be unjustified by an observer Hamilton & Trolier (1986) stereotype is a cognitive structure that contains the perceivers knowledge, beliefs and expectations about a human group too broad, similar to schema Schema (Fiske & Taylor) a hierarchically organized, cognitive structure that represents knowledge about a concept or type of stimulus, and its attributes and the relationships bw those attributes Ashmore & Del Boca (1981) stereotype is a set of beliefs about the personal attributes of a group of people more accurate Cultural and Individual Stereotypes Cultural stereotype consensually or widely shared beliefs about a group Individual stereotype the beliefs held by an individual about the characteristics of a group Is a stereotype an Attitude? Attitude a general evaluation of some object. This evaluation usually falls along a good- bad or favorable-unfavorable dimension Intergroup attitude comprises of: 1) Behavioral component discrimination behaviors Discrimination negative behavior toward someone based on their membership in a group 2) Affective component - prejudice feelings 3) Cognitive component - stereotyping thoughts or beliefs Positive versus Negative Stereotypes Stereotypes are merely generalizations neither good nor bad Defining Prejudice www.notesolution.com2 Gardner (1994) the word prejudice can be taken literally as prejudgment about something Prejudice can suggest an evaluation (either positive or negative) toward a stimulus Prejudice as a Negative Affect Allport (1954) prejudice as an antipathy (intense dislike) based upon a faulty and inflexible generalization, may be felt or expressed, may be directed to a group or individual Prejudice as an Attitude Stangor, Sullivan, Ford (1991) found that the best predictor of negative out-group prejudice is not negative feelings about the out-group but a lack of positive emotions Eagly & Diekman (2005) prejudice should be regarded as an attitude-in-context roles Critics: some theorists assert that an attitude (evaluation) is not the same as affect o Devine prejudice having an affective, cognitive, and behavior component is problematic because research shows that the3 components are not always consistent Prejudice as a Social Emotion Appraisal a set of cognitions that are attached to a specific emotion Emotion is triggered by an assessment of the adaptive significance and self- relevance of the people and events in ones environment Smith (1993) appraisals involve the self, relevance to ones goals in some fashion Says that is it too vague to say that prejudice is a positive or negative feeling about another group, our emotional reactions are quite specific (ex: fear or anger) The traditional conception of prejudice suggests that is we are prejudiced against another group then we should treat with the same negative affect to all members of the group every time we encounter them (but this does not fit with reality) How we react to an out-group member depends on: 1) What self-category is salient for us at that moment 2) In what context the interaction occurs (competitivecooperative) 3) How that person helps or hinders our movement toward salient person or group goals at that time Sub-typing the process whereby a new category is created to accommodate stereotype- inconsistent members of a group about which one holds negative stereotypes Prejudice: 1) Occurs between groups 2) Involves evaluation (positive or negative) of a group 3) Is a biased perception of a group 4) Is based on the real or imagined characteristics of the group The Link Between Stereotyping and Prejudice There is a link: Dovidio performs a meta-analysis and found stereotyping and prejudice are strongly related www.notesolution.com
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