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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michael Inzlicht

PSYC12 Notes Chapter 1: Introduction to the Study of Stereotyping and Prejudice -ppl have a tendency to form groups which are restricted based on special kills, family relations, gender, power etc -allows division of labour -groups are the basic building blocks of society -researchers believe that groups are not unique to humans and have survival benefits -prob with groups: mate competition and mate retention -ingroups: group members tend to favour their own groups -outgroups: groups that ppl dont belong to -minimal group: group membership that is based on the most arbitrary criteria -groups form the basis for negative feelings about other groups = prejudice -form basis for believing that certain charac are associated with other groups = stereotypes -if evo psychologists are right and ingroup and outroup biases are adaptive then there is little we can do to avoid prejudice and stereotyping -all wars, and other acts of group violence are driven by prejudice -some ppl think that racism has declined in the U.S and is no longer a prob - this is the case for overt expressions but it has not disappeared -gay actor Trev Broudy suffered a brutal beating -Mathew Sheppard was murdered for being gay -James Byrd Jr was murdered for being black Defining Stereotyping Lippmannss Stereotype -stereotype orig derives from a term to describe a printing process and was adopted by social scientists when journalist Walter Lippmann used it to describe the tendency of ppl to think of someone in similar terms based on a common feature shared by each -he was accurate in his speculation about the origin of stereotyping - we pick out what our culture has already defined for us -stereotypes tell us what social info is important to perceive and to disregard in out envir - confirms preexisting stereotypes Stereotyping: From Bad to Neutral -stereotyping was seen as an outward indicatory of irrational, nonanalytical cognition -others saw it as rigid thinking; others as an external sign of moral defectiveness -Allport in his book, the nature of prejudice defined a stereotype as an exaggerated belief associated with a category Social Cognitive Definition -with the birth of social cog, stereotyping began to be regarded as an automatic process of categorization that is believed to be inherent in the humans thinking -Brigham defined a stereotype as a generalization that is considered unjustified by an observer -prob is that any generalization about a group is one the observer believes its is justified or not -Hamilton and Troliers def of a stereotype as a cog structure that contains a perceivers knowledge, beliefs and expectations about a group -to broad - stereotype is more specific -more a def of a schema 1 www.notesolution.comPSYC12 Notes -Ashmore and Del Boca define a stereotype as a set of beliefs about the personal attributes of a group of ppl -more accurate Cultural and Individual Stereotypes -cultural stereotype: shared or community wide pattern of beliefs -individual stereotype: beliefs held by an indiv about the charac of a group -adjective rating scales tend to assess cultural stereotypes -may not be accurate as cultural stereotypes may be diff than indiv ones -most research focuses on indiv stereotypes bc they tend to be most related to ppls specific thoughts, feelings and behaviour Is A Stereotype an Attitude? -attitude: general eval of some object; good or bad -A B C -researchers agree that a stereotype is the cog portion of intergroup attitude -discrimination: any neg behaviour directed toward an indiv based on their membership in a group Positive vs Negative Stereotypes -researchers do not regard stereotypes as being bad or good, just a generalization Defining Prejudice -prejudice in the literal sense can be a pre judgement or it can be an evaluation (pos or neg) Prejudice as Negative Affect -Allport defined prejudice as an antipathy based upon a faulty and inflexible generalization - a strong neg feeling about someone based on a generalization about that persons group -prejudice is the affective component of intergroup attitude -unnecessarily limits the definition of prejudice Prejudice as an Attitude -with social cog, prejudice began to be seen as an evaluation - an attitude -has ABC components -can be based on affective, cognitive or behavioural sources and can result ABC behaviours -affect is the most common basis for prejudice - lack of pos emotions esp -stronger prejudice may be based on presence of neg emotions, subtle ones the absence of pos emotions -Eagly and Diekman - Attitude in context -prejudice not inflexible but depends on match bw social role into which a stereotyped indiv is trying to fit and the beliefs of the perceiver about the attributes that are required for success in that role -prejudice most likely when a disadvantage group tries to move into roles for which they are believed to be unqualified -prob 1: some ppl assert that an attitude is not the same as affect - if prejudics is an affect based reaction it cannot be an evaluation -prob 2: may not have separate ABC components - research shows that these components are always consistent Prejudice as a Social Emotion -self categorization theory states that ppll view themselves as a member of a social category or group -intergroup interactions will make salient particular groups categorizations depending on the nature of the group interactions - enhance the sense of ingroup homogeny 2 www.notesolution.comPSYC12 Notes -linked to self identity and thus when they are salient, have affective and motivational consequences -appraisal: a set of cognitions that are attached to a specific emotion (Smith) -emotion is triggered by an assessment of the adaptive sig and self relevance of the ppl and events in ones envir -invariably involve the self bc they have relevance to ones goals -he says that this conceptualization is too vague to say that prejudice is a pos or neg feeling about another group -the traditional conception of prejudice suggests that if we are prejudiced against another group, then we should react with the same neg affect to all members of the group every time we encounter them - this does not fit with reality -explained with subtyping: prejudiced indiv maintains a neg affect toward the group but creates a separate category for specific members -SMith says this obscures the fact that how we react to other ppl does not depend on the type of group member they are but on who a person is, in what context and how we appraise that indiv in terms of our goals -how we react to any given outgroup member depends on : (1) what self category is salient for us at that moment (2) in what context the interaction occurs (3) how that person helps or hinders our move toward salient personal or group goals at that time -the move to to view prejudice as an attitude was strongly initiated by the practical constrains of how to measure prejudice -prejudice is most commonly measured with self report measures -textbook def of prejudice: occurs bw groups; involved an evaluation of a group; is a biased perception of a group; is based on the real or imagined charac of the group THe Link Between Stereotyping and Prejudice -balance theory -ones attitudes, behaviours and affect toward another person should be cognitively consistent or we experience an imbalance creating cog dissonance -reasoned action -our beliefs about a group will be determined by our attitudes toward a group -can never be the case that stereotypes about a group would not be consistent with prejudice toward that groups -Fishnein and Ajzen argue that the relationship bw an attitude and subsequent attitude relevant behaviour is much stronger if one aggregates multiple behaviours into a single behaviour measure - greater consistency bw stereotype and prejudice Early Perspectives in Stereotyping Research Measurement -katz and braly - first empirical study of stereotyping -investigated the content of the stereotypes that whites had regarding 10 diff ethnic groups -attitude research = cornerstone of social psych Individual Differences in Stereotyping -in the 30 and 50s emphasis was on examining factors that lead indivs to stereotype others -what personality charac or motivations cause one person but not another to stereotype -Hovland et al found that persuasion messages were more likely to be successful when directed toward ppl who are less educated, distracted, and lower in self esteem -motivational reinforcement theory - certain attitudes are formed and maintained bc they are followed by reinforcing events -self serving attributions to derogating others to improves ones self esteem 3 www.notesolution.com
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