Originates I europe, asia and africa.. But ofcourse start of here in toronto
1) Experimental history , st george campus, here was the first experimental psych lab. Founded by an
american psychologist, JAMES something. Uof T hired him but canadian were up and arms aboutthis. He
opened the psych lab, in the same year there was a fire and the lab burned to ground, so any good
psychologist might, he lobbied for larger laboratory space and got it moved to a new building
Took advantage of the accident
2) lab school: Labrotary school, also located here, children would go to school and psychologists would
study them, taught and studied at the same time. Labrotary school is on spadina and bloor, its still there.
3) Psychiatric treatment: CAMH, opened over a 150 years ago and stil treats the mentally ill.
4) Lakeshore psychiatric, opened at the same time as camh, but closed.
LAKESHORE PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITAL: MORAL TREATMENT WAS THE USE. IF YOU WERE ILL, YOU COULD
GET BETTER BY WALKING, TALKING PLAYING SPORTS ETC.
but the institution closed down
internal factor: camh had more sucessful treatment otucomes. another factor is geographic difference
(urban, downtown) lake shore asylum is located in farm country.. really hard to realize the goals of it.
btu what historians do: active/research discipline.
how historians do their job: be critical when you read any historical version, read historical facts.
HISTORY: now hwat happens int he past, its what historians tell us happened inthe past.. if we want to
study history, how historians work, whats the method? historiography.
1) studying the historical discipline.
2) the historical institution
3) study how historians are studying their topic over time (studying actions of individual historians)
--> take a text and compare how the stories are told across time and you can see how different editions
are told differently, probably because there were errors, and over time the errors have been corrected.
focusing on individuals vs focusing on broader social conditions and over time, in a text book you may se
that an individual focuses on a certain small number of people, and look at broader context, social
climate and seee how it helped shape
what does it tell us:
the content and methods used have changed over time
change in the story, the content has changed: IE - your family may not know so much about something.
and now you can go onto websites, access info, and learn a lot more.
become larger in a mass, learn a lot more. by asking question and going in depth over generations.
method: technology (being able to send in your piece of hair to be genetically mapped)
EG BORING: he wrote the well known hsitory of psychology in 20's and 50's his approach focused on
individuals, he focused in on a small group of psychologists and he thought they did the landmark
research studies, but they were the precursor of change, small number of great men.
compare this to
ZEITGEIST: spirit of the age/time: according to that approach its not that theres few ppl who have the
right trianing and are geniuses, but rather hwat u have is a number of people exposed to the same social
conditions, atheyre all equally likely to have the idea and it may be that there are cvertain conditions
that prevent their ideas, thought htey have it, from leading to change. man and woman studying the
same psychological topic and man would get recognized, (beca use social context is at play) how thigns change within a discipline. have a theory about global warming, but if you work in a university that has
a lot of automotive stuff, you may censor your results.
KNOWLEDGE: how does it change?
we know things about human minds, the brain, its functions, different conditions, so how does that
knowledge develop over time
Answer 1) over time you learn more and more, become specialized in how you can study it, althought
you know everything... overtime knowledge amaxes, it continues to build. gets better, constant growth,
line doesnt plateau, you will always learnmore, there is no stop. (PROGRESSIVE VIEW OF KNOWLWDGE
ABOTU PSYCHOLOGY) we will never know it all , change = progress
Answer 2) were becoming more and more specialized, we will eventualy know it all, and be plateau.
over time (CYCLICAL view of knowledge) something can be true, btu things can change and you will
realize you were wrong. so over time the knowlewdge you had, is accurate inso far as you know, but in
the future it could change, that social conditions change, lifestyles change, technologies change, which
skews everything you currently know.. propose a theory, it gets rejected, modified theory gets
proposed, and then gets rejected, and so continues to compile more accurate info. denies progress is
implied by change
progressive veiws of knowledge: march of progres in human beings: condatantly changing, we thinkg we
have adapted, were better off than our ancestors, we have mastered our world. but the lifestyle
changes we make, we have become un adapted... so hwo we thin of ourselves, we lost our value, lost
our identity so this is consistent with the cyclical view.
THE NEW History OF PSYCHOLOGY:
1) scientists can be subjective: why? because htyere isolated from society, they afec social pressure,
they have egos that need stroking, they may get their funds from places that put an emphasis on certain
types of research, that value certain types of results over others. so scientists arent always subjective. its
hard for a scientist to detach them self from their work.
they would feel better if they can find evidence to support the hypothesis than that which disproves it.
scientific activity isnt always progressive, it doesnt always tell us better things, doesnt igve us a better
picture all the time. people spend a life time doing research. and yet they dont find better information.
consistent with this new history of psychology, where as the old version says: oh yes everyhting we
know now is better. so society plays a role in shaping science.with funding, theres only so much
available, you cant be objective, you have to change the questions your asking a bit to fit with what the
govt cares about. research what seems valueable by certain institutions in power. if govt isnt, a company
may pay you to, your reults arent yours.. you cant share your results, it wil impact the bottom line. key
fact of scientific method is at risk because of where themoney is comking from.
2) religion: a force, r u going to study homosexuality? probably not. society can i