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Key Terms for Quiz 2

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Henry Shiu

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Key Terms for Sikhism: SUFISM In Islam, there was Sufism, the Islamic mystical tradition Some scholars maintain that Sufism derived much early inspiration from Hinduism Significance: this Islamic tradition in combination with the Hindu Sant tradition of the time were fundamental in the need for a new unifying religion; there were conflicts between these two existing religions and Sikhism arose as a resolution SANT TRADITION There was also the North Indian Sant tradition The term Sant may carry the meaning of holy ascetic, truth or saint Three elements contributed to the rise of the Sant tradition: 1. Bhakti or devotional practice 2. Tantric yoga 3. Sufism Significance: as above an attempt to reconcile conflicts between the two religions in the Punjab area; also, Sikhism was a continuation of what the Sant tradition was teaching at the time SANT POETS Sants: Ascetic poets who believed divinity to exist beyond all forms or description Sant poets: are like the earlier/primitive forms of Sikhism from the perspective of scholars There were many influential Sant poets, including Namdev, Ravidas, Kabir Significance: they are the early religious leaders and scholars of Sikhism N ANAK The first teacher: Nanak (1469-1539); a Hindu by birth Significance: Guru Nanak in mid-15th century who founded the religion A DIGRANTH Literally, original book; first compiled by Guru Arjan in 1604 and invested with supreme authority as the Guru Granth Sahib after the death of Guru Gobind Singh Meant to be sung not read like a book; to be memorized and sung by the followers Significance: it is the Sikh holy text and contains their hymns Nanak describes the fundamental divine reality as: S ATG URU: True Teacher OR OM KARA: Divine One Significance: the Sikh equivalent of a God as described by Guru Nanak; a God should be experienced, rather than talked about M ARDANA Guru Nanaks friend (Muslim by birth), who visited holy sites throughout northern India with him Nanak preached, sought disciples, and sang devotional songs, while Mardana played musical accompaniment Significance: a secondary founder of Sikhism SIKH Disciples of Nanak are Sikh Significance: practitioners of Sikhism today are also labeled Sikh; followers are Sikhs The development of Sikhisms earliest stage was that of the first four Gurus: N ANAK, ANGAD , MARDAS AND RAMDAS . Significance: were the first 4 gurus Angad (1504-52) 2 Guru Nanak chose Angad as his successor Refined the Gurmukhi (from the Gurus mouth) script in which the Gurus hymns were recorded Amar Das (1479-1574) 3 Guru Introduced institutional innovations that helped reinforce the cohesion of the Sikh Panth Established two annual festivals: Divali and Baisakhi Ram Das (1534-81) 4 Guru Contributed 679 new hymns to the collection that made up the Sikh scripture and expanded the number of melodies (ragas) from 19 to 30 A RJAN The fifth guru (1536-1606) and son of Ramdas Built the Darbar Sahib (Divine Court or Golden Temple in Amritsar) Arjan was killed on the order of the new emperor, Jahangir Significance: Arjan created the sacred book of the Sikhs, the Adi Granth (original collection) H ARGOBIND th 6 Guru (1595-1644), Arjans son, took a self-defensive direction, adopted the practice of wearing two swords symbolizing spiritual and temporal authority Significance: began one of the defining Sikh traditions; carried through the next gurus th th H ARRAI7 Guru (1630-61) and H ARKRISHAN 8 Guru (1655-64) Relations with the Mughal authorities eased under these Gurus T EGH BAHADUR 9 Guru (1621-75) Increasing strength of the Sikh movement during this period once again attracted Mughal attention in the 1670s Publicly executed when he refused to embrace Islam Significance: encouraged followers to be fearless in their pursuit of a just society G OBINDR AI(G OBIND SINGH) Gobindrai, better known as Gobind Singh (Gobind the lion), inaugurated the Khalsa Resolved to impose on his followers an outward form that would make them instantly recognizable He closed the Sikh canon and ended succession of human Gurus Significance: created the Khalsa; responsible for the distinct outward appearance of (male) Sikhs K HALSA Literally, pure or crown estate; hence an order of Sikhs bound by common identity and discipline A special military order for men, it was open to all castes and all males within the Khalsa took the name Singh (lion) and females, Kaur (princess) Five Ks were adopted by the members of the Khalsa to promote strength and self-identity Significance: every morning in putting on the various items of dress Khalsa Sikhs dress themselves in the word of God; has implications in the Sikh cultureA KBAR Emperor Akbar found Sikhism a tolerant monotheistic practice and regarded the followers as a disciplined moral community Successors of Akbar felt distrustful about the Sikhs growth and political influences Significance: it was in response to the growing persecution that moved Sikhism to its next stage (next stage starting with Arjan) The Five Ks: The five marks of a Khalsa identity include
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