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RLGA02H3 Study Guide - Jean Astruc, Book Of Leviticus, Elohist


Department
Religion
Course Code
RLGA02H3
Professor
David Perley

Page:
of 13
Themes:
Judaism: sees human history as reflection of desires and demands of god
Founded 3200 yrs ago at Mount Sinai when a divine revelation was delivered through Moses to the
people Israel
-agreement (covenant) still followed today sealed at Mount Sinai
Bar mitzvah- coming of age 13 yrs son of commandment every saturday
Bat mitzvah-coming of age daughter of commandment
Sabbath Saturday is the rest day for the jews
- Day of prayer and public assembly in the synagogue(jewish house of worship and community
meeting)
- Teen reads 2 selections from Hebrew bible
o 1 from Pentateuch and 1 from prophets (2nd section from Hebrew bible)
Pentateuch 5 books of Moses (first section of Hebrew bible)
Hebrew bible 3 sections (Pentateuch, prophets & writings)
13 adulthood begins right of passage to maturity age of ritual and moral responsibility not adult status
in modern world
minyan quorum of 10 to begin group prayer , teen may be called to read from sacred scripture and
recite blessings
Torah first scripture 13 yr old reads aloud in public in synagogue
- Religious law
- Hebrew bible and all commentaries on it
- 5 books of Moses
- Written in ancient Hebrew on scroll (must know ancient script and traditional melodies to which
words are chanted)
- Ultimate repository of religious truth expected to study it throughout life
- Values of community
Bar mitzvah/bat mitzvah gives thanks for scripture to guide people Israel, city of Jerusalem, dynasty of
david, Sabbath
Congregation: says
- Jews are different from anyone else because they are given responsibility to study and keep the
Torah
- Some services conducted in local English/French language
- Males to called to Torah (minority in north America)
- Similar but not equivalent coming of age ceremonies for girls
- Others prefer service in Hebrew or learn Hebrew chants
- Substitute essay writing, social action and other goodworks
- Family of teen celebrates by hosting a dinner/luncheon simple or grand to celebrate fam’s
success and good fortune
Late 18th century: jews began to achieve legal rights, gain in affluence and take part in intellectual life of
European societies
Bar mitzvah simple matter between rabbi and teen
- Could be conducted any day torah is read (mon, thurs, sat)
Post bar mitzvah part of sabbath service for whole congregation to be apart of
- Preserves tradtion by renewing it
Judaism:
Gave rise to Christianity and islamspiritual lineage traces back to Abraham
- Smallest of the 3 tradtions
- Monotheism belief in 1 god greater historical influence
- Hebrew bible gives to people of the lord
- Christianity and islam preoccupied with their own interpretations, fail at appreciating
interpretation of shared heritage
Possible to join jewish community by converting
Tradition is commonly more inherited and for that reason Judaism is an ethnic religion some jews say
yes to ethnic identity but no to religion
North Americans, Europeans and Israelis identiy themselves as jews but do not take part in
religious tradition member of cultural community with distinctive literary and artistic
traditions, foods and folkways and various social, historical milieus
- religion to them is a aprt of their culture but does not define them
Cannot call someone a jew based on biological heredity because of conversions and people of diff
backgrounds marrying in total jews under 14 million worldwide (half in Israel, Americas, Europe)
21st century world population of jews is 1/3 smaller than it was in 1939
1939- 2nd world war began over in 1945
6 million European jews died due to Nazis (political party that ruled Germany) in the holocaust
Reform, conservative and orthodox groups of jews in Americas
- Differences reflected in ritual practice not belief or doctrine
- Depends on history of Judaism in each country
- Christianity divisions depend on differences in belief and doctrine
Jews believe that God expects all humans to follow same fundamental moral code revealed to Noah
form of covenant (agreement) after primeval flood accessible to everyone
-jews bound to subsequent covenant via prophet Moses
at Mount Sinai
God took israilite people out of Egypt, claimed them as his peopleresponded that lord will be their
godpromise confirmed at mt Sinai where Hebrews were commanded to follow special set of rules not
to be preferred over any other but thought they were god’s special people because they have been
saved from slavery and elected to fulfill a special responsibility to serve as god’s priests
Biblical period
History of a people as they understand and follow a god who has chosen them to serve as an instrument
Hebrew bible sacred scripture for Christians and muslims
Liberal accepts modern historical principles and reserves right to question historical accuracy of
biblical text like modern Christian and muslim scholars
- Distinguish between myth, legend and history
Tradition- every word of text is literally true
Text must have been dictated to Moses and prophets by divine inspiration
Key moment: match iraelities narratives with accounts of same people and events in texts of neighbours
1206 BCE monumental stone in Egypt inscribed with hymn describing victories of egyption pharaoh me-
ne-ptah refers to wandering people not fixed with territory 13th century BCE identified as people Israel
(biblical legend vs biblical history)
Genesis:
Ch1) Primeval history of universe god creates heaven and earth from what was chaotic and primal
waters covered earth
God divided light from darkness and created different things on each of the first 6 days creation of
humanity (male and female)
7th day god rested weekly Sabbath (sundown Friday night to sundown Saturday)
Ch2) god causes mist to rise from ground with vegetation sprouting
Creates primal man, Adam and plants a garden in Eden (man placed first then animals and then woman
Eve)
Passages in bible say god created both light and darkness, good and evil zoroastrians
Genesis 1 ordered view of creation as arranged by days of the week
priestly hierarchy (God (creator), Sabbath (period of rest),humanity(male/female)
Ch1 priestly writer
Ch2- ancient Hebrew epic compiled by king’s court JE
Isaiah 45 aka 2 isaiah written by Persians
Early interpretations of bible god created everything, there are no separate gods so don’t worship sun,
stars,moon all created by god
Genesis2
Adam- Hebrew word for man
Eve- living
Both adam and eve stand naked innocence, peace and harmony
Genesis3-childlike nakedness contrasted with shrewdness where serpent convinces them to eat fruit
from tree of knowledge of good and evil
Adam-unwary,trusting uses simple sentences
Eve-curious,intelligent uses complex sentencesthink though problems
Couple lacks moral sense ability to make moral distinctions
Eve’s sharp intelligence causes their downfall, eats the forbidden fruit that god directly told them not to
eat
Moral capacity acquired by eating forbidden fruit shame and guilt experienced (knowledge of good
and evil) positive to humans
Pain and evil are consequences of human disobedience and lack of moral discernment but god still
shows his care while expelling adam and eve
Etiological stories that offer to explain the causes or reasons behind our present circumstances (pain
during childbirth, why we work for a living, why snakes crawl on the ground)
Christian interpretation: disobedience is an orginal sin insists a deep relationship between
sexuality,sin,death and Satan (enemy of god snake)
First 11 chapters of genesis how badly humans govern themselves when left to be free and follow their
own conscience violence and corruption fills earth leading god to find a way to destroy their evil
society