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Mass Education 1st - After MidTerm.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Sheldon Ungar

Sociology Lecture 1 (After Mid-Term) 1 Mass Education:An Overview • Education system has displaced organized religion as main purveyor of formal knowledge • Education system also is second in importance only to the family as agent of socialization • Universal mass education is recent phenomenon and is limited to relatively wealthy countries • Education provides uniform socialization; education has become rationalized and centralized. Strong pressures based on uniformity and standardization • Religious training was never widely available and tended to set people apart from surrounding community • Replacing these forms of instruction with centralized and rationalized system created strong pressures toward uniformity and standardization • What is taught in school, what changes in economy relate to changes in education – (religion worries) • Steve jobs and steve wasniak • Sociologists are interested in how the economy impacts education (Steve Jobs), but education can also influence the economy (DNAresearch facilities) Does education promote equality or inequality? (Functional and Conflict approach) • Functional: functionalists account emphasizes differences in school outcomes are properly regarded as… • Achievements (outcomes assigned in proportion to individual success in satisfying job-relevant tests of capacity), instead of… • Ascription (outcomes assigned to circumstances and traits for which individuals have no responsibility) • Meritocracy • Conflict: argues economic barriers filter based on ability to pay. Some jobs require educational credentials which are questionable • Too much reliance on credentials, many academic credentials are questionable. Education reproduces class differences • Neo-marxists: education perpetuates inequality. Conflict: Discensus , functionalist: consensus • Functionalist: education socializes people Sociology Lecture 1 (After Mid-Term) 2 • Traditional societies: largely non-literate and culture passed on from family to child. • Formal education develops as the labor division increases – formal education comes along and becomes mandatory. Ex: accountant son and engineer dad • Kinship network can no longer socialize the child for adult roles, specialized institutions are required for this socialization • The three R’s: reading, writing, and arithmetic. • Schools socialize also by way of informal curriculum. The formal curriculum is numeracy and literacy. The informal curriculum is obedience to authority, conformity to cultural norms, transmits values, beliefs, and norms, and encourages good behavior, discipline, punctuality, motivation and achievement, deferred gratification is taught (ability to postpone wants for later), st • 1 function: education tries to stimulate intellectual thinking and new discovery and creativity all stimulated by research. • 2 Function: Homogenization • Gellner proposed mass education was basis for modern nationalism – sentiments emphasizing view that humanity is divided into limited number of populations defined by common culture, territory, and continuity within kin gro
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