SOCB44H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Technological Determinism, Mount Pinatubo, Cultural Capital

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8 May 2012

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September 1969: A march organized by the French unilinguist “Ligue pour l’integration
scolaire” paraded through an Italian neighbourhood
Riot broke out
Resolution: Bill 101:
Makes French the language of public administration
Imposes French language tests for admission to professions
Requires most businesses with more than 50 employees to operate in French
Requires collective agreements to be drafted in French
Children of immigrants required to receive primary and secondary schooling in
The bill was passed because the Francophones in Quebec felt that the option of bilingual
education in St. Leonard was resulting in Anglicization of the city; over 90% of children
with neither an English nor a French background (“allophones”) were enrolling in the
bilingual track; 85% of which continued to English secondary schools
In 1976, Parti Quebecois won their first election and Bill 101 was passed
Schools teach students a common culture that forms social framework for later life; they
shape work, politics, and much more
Which children have access to which schools sorts children into adult jobs and social
Schools must accomplish two main tasks:
1) Homogeneity: achieved through enforcing common standards, such as language
2) Sorting: Favours students who develop greatest facility in common culture while
confining those of lesser skills to subordinate work roles and lower ranks in the class
Homogenizing and sorting are organized at primary, secondary, and postsecondary
Mass schooling = recent advancement due to industrialization and to maintain
productivity of economy
Citizens of richer countries are more likely to receive an education; more education =
better treatment in labour market = lower rates of underemployment and higher
Thus, education turns students into citizens by giving them a common outlook, but on
the other hand regenerates the class structure and global inequality
Education has displaced religion as main purveyor of formal knowledge
Education system = second most important agent of socialization (after family)
300 years ago: small minority of people learned to read and write; 100 years ago:
majority of people never attended school; 1950: only 10% of world’s countries consisted
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of compulsory mass education; today: more than 50% of people in developing nations
are illiterate (e.g. In India, 400 million people are illiterate and 35 million children do
not attend school)
Proportion of people between ages of 25-64 with a college/university degree in Canada is
1.05 million (48%) (First in the world, followed by Japan, and then U.S.)
Mass education is a recent concept, developed in 1900 by Canada and the United States;
before that, vast majority of children learned to work as adults by observing and helping
their adults in the agricultural economy
Establishing mass schooling imposed uniformity and standardization it leads to
Laws were established in Canada to compel students to attend school to a certain age
In Canada, more than 5% of families send their children to private schools and 1 in 200
children is home-schooled; 94% of families send their children to public schools (year:
Level of education that people receive has been rising continuously in Canada (e.g. in
1951, 1 in 50 Canadians (ages 25-64) had a university degree; today, 1 in 4 Canadians
(ages 25-64) has a university degree
Reason for higher level of education is apparent: education is the most visible option for
improving employment opportunities
Barriers for post-secondary education: financial, motivational, and academic
EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT: The learning or skill that an individual acquires,
and in principle, it is what grades reflect( more abstract)
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT: Number of years of schooling completed or for
higher levels, degrees and certificates that are earned
Whereas selection (into post-secondary institutions) depends on individual educational
achievements, educational attainment involves individual success, as well as non-
academic factors such as family background
Higher educational attainment = more employment and more earnings
Lower rates of unemployment are associated with more education
More education and better earning also goes together; for instance, in the highest
earning category (100,000 and more), 58% of people completed university
Advantages of education:
Provides a basis for collective and individual wealth
Motivates widespread loyalty to culture and society
Disadvantages of education:
Reproduce class inequality
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Sociologists identify four factors that account for the spread of mass schooling:
1) Development of the printing press that led to inexpensive book
Introduced by Johann Gutenberg in 1436 in Europe
Led to a dramatic decline in prices for books also, books were published in
languages other than Latin which made literacy common first in cities, and then
in rural areas
2) The Protestant Reformation
Introduced by Martin Luther, a German monk in the early 16th century in
Gave rise to Protestantism, in opposition to the Catholic Church; in Catholic
churches, the priests were responsible for conveying the doctrines of the bible
to the believers; however, the Protestants believed that they should have more
direct contact with the words of God and should be allowed to read the Bible
for themselves
3) The spread of democracy
Rise of political democracy led to free education for all children
Led to local tax-based funding of public school systems
Earliest such systems were in Upper Canada and the northern U.S. in 1870;
1900, were the first countries in the world to reach enrolment rates of 90%
for children 5-14 years of age
4) Industrialism
Most important reason for rise of mass schooling
Schooling was recognized as an absolute necessity for industrialization
1780s: Industrial Revolution began in England; soon followed by Germany
and U.S.
As industrialization began, literacy and numeracy extended (although
historians those days assessed literacy by counting the number of people who
could sign marriage registers and similar documents with the name instead of
an “X”)
Germany was noted to have the finest universities in the world those days;
focused on research and science these universities were copied first by U.S.
and then other countries
Eventually, it was universally recognized that the key to creating a productive
economy is an education system to create a mass labour force, and to train
and employ an elite group of researchers
Although today it is recognized that investment in education = important step
in achieving national wealth, the connection between education and national
wealth is not automatic (e.g. Although in both Zimbabwe and Saudi Arabia,
the average years of education is 9-10, the former has a GDP/capita of $190,
while the latter has a GDP/capita of $8,561) See Table 17.2
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