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# SOCC31H3 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Mutual Exclusivity, Sampling Distribution, Squared Deviations From The Mean

Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCC31H3
Professor
Shirin Montazer
Study Guide
Quiz

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CH.1
The stages of social research
1. research qs
2. hypothesis
3. method
4. collect data
5. analyze data
-Experiment; a type of research where the researcher manipulates one
or more independent variables.
-Experimental also known as a treatment group; the group that is
manipulated
-Control group; the group is not manipulated
-Participant observation; research where the researcher participates in
the daily life of study.
-Secondary analysis; use data that was collected by other researchers
-Qualitative data; a set of observation where any single observation is a
word or code that represents a class or category (use a small N, open
ended interviews)
-Quantitative data; a set of observation where a single observation is a
number that represents an amount or count (use large N)
-Variable; characteristics that differ from one individual to the other
-Hypothesis; a statement of relationship between 2 or more variables
-Dependent variable; the presumed outcome or effect resulting from
some treatment or exposure.
-Independent variable; presumed cause or influence affecting the
dependent variable.
Level of measurement
-nominal; involves naming or labelling not in order
-ordinal; involves the ordering of categories
-interval; ordering and exact distance (\$, degrees, yrs of education)
-ratio level; same as interval but includes an absolute or zero
point( age, hours worked)
Discrete variable; separate and distinct specific values (gender, religion, #
of dependents)
Continuous variable; infinite range of possible values (weight, age,
income)
2 functions of stats; inferential and descriptive
Ch.2
Frequency distribution
2 popular methods:
- Proportion; number of cases compared to the total size of
distribution
P= f/n

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- Percentage; the frequency per 100 cases
%= (100) f/n
-ordinal and interval data must be in a sequence order in a frequency
table
-class intervals must be mutually exclusive. Ex; 1-5, 6-10 NOT =>1-5,
5-10
-whole numbers preferable to decimals
-Steps of constructing frequency distribution
8. specify the number of class intervals
9. The largest data- the smallest data/ number of classes= class
width (w=l-s/k)
Stated vs. True Limits
-true classes; classes that upper true (or real) limit of that class is the
same as the lower true limit of the next class
-stated classes; those classes that we see in grouped frequency
Bottom of interval: 1/2unit below stated & Top of interval: 1/2 unit
above stated
-The number of decimal places of stated limits determines the number
of zeros before the ``5`` that is subtracted or added to obtain the true
limit (1 decimal place =.05; 2 decimal places= .005, etc
The Midpoint
-class intervals have a midpoint
-Midpoint- SUM of the lowest and highest scores divided by 2. M=
LS+HS/2
Cumulative Distributions
-cf is cumulative frequencies. They are the total # of cases having any
given score or a score that is lower. The cumulative frequency for any
category or class interval is obtained by adding frequency in that
category to the total frequency for all categories.
-Cumulative percentage –percentage of cases having any score or a
lower score. c%=(100) cf/N
Cross Tabulations
-frequency distributions of each variable separately can be found along
the margins of a 2 way cross tabulation is called “marginal distributions”
•Rule of Thumb:
•If the independent variable is on the rows, use row percents. Row %=
(100) f/N row
•If the independent variable is on the columns, use column percents. Col
%= (100) f/N column
•If the independent variable is unclear –use whichever is most
meaningful.
•IN OUR CASE: we use column percentages because the independent
variable is on the column