# SOCC31H3 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Mutual Exclusivity, Sampling Distribution, Squared Deviations From The Mean

by OC8317

Department

SociologyCourse Code

SOCC31H3Professor

Shirin MontazerStudy Guide

QuizThis

**preview**shows pages 1-2. to view the full**6 pages of the document.**CH.1

The stages of social research

1. research qs

2. hypothesis

3. method

4. collect data

5. analyze data

-Experiment; a type of research where the researcher manipulates one

or more independent variables.

-Experimental also known as a treatment group; the group that is

manipulated

-Control group; the group is not manipulated

-Participant observation; research where the researcher participates in

the daily life of study.

-Secondary analysis; use data that was collected by other researchers

-Qualitative data; a set of observation where any single observation is a

word or code that represents a class or category (use a small N, open

ended interviews)

-Quantitative data; a set of observation where a single observation is a

number that represents an amount or count (use large N)

-Variable; characteristics that differ from one individual to the other

-Hypothesis; a statement of relationship between 2 or more variables

-Dependent variable; the presumed outcome or effect resulting from

some treatment or exposure.

-Independent variable; presumed cause or influence affecting the

dependent variable.

Level of measurement

-nominal; involves naming or labelling not in order

-ordinal; involves the ordering of categories

-interval; ordering and exact distance ($, degrees, yrs of education)

-ratio level; same as interval but includes an absolute or zero

point( age, hours worked)

Discrete variable; separate and distinct specific values (gender, religion, #

of dependents)

Continuous variable; infinite range of possible values (weight, age,

income)

2 functions of stats; inferential and descriptive

Ch.2

Frequency distribution

2 popular methods:

- Proportion; number of cases compared to the total size of

distribution

P= f/n

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

- Percentage; the frequency per 100 cases

%= (100) f/n

-ordinal and interval data must be in a sequence order in a frequency

table

-class intervals must be mutually exclusive. Ex; 1-5, 6-10 NOT =>1-5,

5-10

-whole numbers preferable to decimals

-Steps of constructing frequency distribution

8. specify the number of class intervals

9. The largest data- the smallest data/ number of classes= class

width (w=l-s/k)

Stated vs. True Limits

-true classes; classes that upper true (or real) limit of that class is the

same as the lower true limit of the next class

-stated classes; those classes that we see in grouped frequency

Bottom of interval: 1/2unit below stated & Top of interval: 1/2 unit

above stated

-The number of decimal places of stated limits determines the number

of zeros before the ``5`` that is subtracted or added to obtain the true

limit (1 decimal place =.05; 2 decimal places= .005, etc

The Midpoint

-class intervals have a midpoint

-Midpoint- SUM of the lowest and highest scores divided by 2. M=

LS+HS/2

Cumulative Distributions

-cf is cumulative frequencies. They are the total # of cases having any

given score or a score that is lower. The cumulative frequency for any

category or class interval is obtained by adding frequency in that

category to the total frequency for all categories.

-Cumulative percentage –percentage of cases having any score or a

lower score. c%=(100) cf/N

Cross Tabulations

-frequency distributions of each variable separately can be found along

the margins of a 2 way cross tabulation is called “marginal distributions”

•Rule of Thumb:

•If the independent variable is on the rows, use row percents. Row %=

(100) f/N row

•If the independent variable is on the columns, use column percents. Col

%= (100) f/N column

•If the independent variable is unclear –use whichever is most

meaningful.

•IN OUR CASE: we use column percentages because the independent

variable is on the column

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