Lecture 1 and 2 12-03-04 5:15 PM
Contemporary: Roughly in the 20th century
Mutually Assured Destruction: MAD.
Midterm 2 essay ques, pick one of two ques and you combine LECTURE
MATERIL and readings, 21 questions.
1. DURKHEIM’S INFLUENCE
–(a) DURKHEIM’S FUNCTIONAL ORIGINS
• Durkheim is a classical sociological theorist, now we will see the
relationship between Durkheim and Parsons because they are both
• He is about order consensus and stability
• Functionalists influence on Durkheim: he became interested in
sociology because he was first attracted to the humanity, as he felt
it did not offer MORAL CRISIS in France.
o History and philosophy was not capable of developing
SCIENTIFIC LAWS that can deal with this crisis.
o Who was he influenced by? KANT (German Philosopher),
SAINT SIMON, COMPTE (French) and SPENCER (English) all
these people are functionalists.
o He felt that sociology must study the MORAL NATURE of
modern industrial society
o Wanted to create a MORALLY UNIFIED SOCIETY instead of
fragmentation and disunity: he calls that ANOMIE.
o Durkheim also borrows the idea of MORAL ORDER from
COMPTE and he also borrows from SPENCER; the larger
societies become the more differentiated they become. And
the more ANOMIC they become… as society become bigger
(SOCIAL EVOLUTIONISM) over time (hunters and
gatherers 25 people)
As they become larger they become more
differentiated (society splits up into parts) and more
anomic (more difficult to integrate)
o Although Durkheim was influenced by SPENCER he rejects
English Utilitarianism, because Utilitarianism is an English
philosophy ideology, according to Durkheim it is too
INDIVIDUALISTIC (too much individualism destroys
SOCIAL HARMONY) … it also fails to appreciate how much
individuals goals and DESIRES are shaped by society.
o Utilitarian’s : the moral and ethical worth and value of any
action is determined by the contribution to UTLITY (utility is
HAPPINESS, pleasure desires)
Durkheim argues (anti capitalist) the pursuit of
PLEASURE is detrimental to society, as it undermines
INTEGRATION. He says this is BAD for SOCIAL
INTEGRATION. He apposes the English Utilitarianism
2. DURKHEIM ON SOCIETY
–(a) THE PROPERTIES OF SOCIETY
• he thinks in terms of TOTALITY society is a totality. A hole.. it’s a
reality different from other realities. It is unique and distinct.
o Society is a reality “of its own kind” SUI GENERIS “cant
o Different from biological and psychological reality, you cannot
get society from biology.
o Sociology deserves to be an independent discipline as it is
known to be SUI GENEREIS
• Society is made up of these things:
o COLLECTIVE REPERSENTATIONS (these come from the
collective, not just the individuals) which produce a
COLLECTIVE CONSCIOUSNESS (ask angali for this term)
• How is this reality unique “SUI GENERIS” ? How is society SG?
o 1) Precedes, society precedes you.. it comes before you and
lives after you too. (Out lives you)
Your born into an ONGOING social world. Your only here
for a short time.
o 2) External Force, people feel society is an external source.
And in this source comes CONSTRAIN. Ex UTSC is an external
force which constrains people, it does it without you being
aware of it. SOCIALIZED
o 3) Constrains, to hold in check, to hold back. - HEALTHY
• Your born into an ONGOING social world. Your only here for a short
time. When you are apart of this ONGOING reality you become
SOCIALIZED, your view of things become shaped by society. Each
generation socializes the next generation. Once a gen is socialized it
brings a new one.
–(b) DURKHEIM ON SOCIAL CHANGE
• HE like SPENCER is an evolutionist (evolutionary perspective, the
evolution of society overtime to small to complex). He has this
DYNAMIC view of society not STATIC. Dynamic view that society is
emergent (a state of becoming).. society is always in FLUX
(undergoing change, new reality is always emerging)
• He argued that, a HEALTHY EGO (when a person is constrained held
back and in check), for him CONSTRAINT IS GOOD FOR YOU. When
individuals are not constrained it causes trouble
•(i) MECHANICAL SOLIDARITY:
• simple primitive societies, tribal hunting gathering societies, there is
a wide degree of sharing on collective representations (one person
thinks virtually the same as another person)
• differences are not allowed in this society, almost TOTAL
IDENTIFICATION in this type of societies, you find very HIGH
LEVELS OF SOCIAL INTEGRATION, because societies differ in
connection to how they integrated (common beliefs and value),
where individualism is virtually unknown.
•(ii) ORGANIC SOLIDARITY
• As population density increases (more people in smaller areas)
interaction increases and competition increases. Durkheim does not
Midterm 2 essay ques, pick one of two ques and you combine lecture. Materil and readings, 21 questions: durkheim"s influence. (a) durkheim"s functional origins: durkheim is a classical sociological theorist, now we will see the relationship between durkheim and parsons because they are both. Compte and he also borrows from spencer; the larger societies become the more differentiated they become. And the more anomic they become as society become bigger (social evolutionism) over time (hunters and gatherers 25 people) As they become larger they become more differentiated (society splits up into parts) and more anomic (more difficult to integrate: although durkheim was influenced by spencer he rejects. English utilitarianism, because utilitarianism is an english philosophy ideology, according to durkheim it is too. Durkheim argues (anti capitalist) the pursuit of. Pleasure is detrimental to society, as it undermines. He apposes the english utilitarianism: durkheim on society. (a) the properties of society: he thinks in terms of totality society is a totality.