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Full Semester Lecture Notes

25 Pages
118 Views

Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT204H1
Professor
Leslie Jermyn

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Post-Colonial Africa 18/04/11 10:06 PM
This Magnificent African Cake- on hold at the Media Commons all semester
1117 people killed labeled ‘niggers’ and though the murder ceased once
they had them under control, used them for workers
Kenya
1918- 4 million Kenyan farming acres given to British settlers,
taxation introduced for Africans in cash (they could only procure
this money by going to work for a European)
School introduced for African children soldiers sent in to take kids
away
Northern Nigeria
Kings able to stay in power and work together with European
colonists both sides had much to gain
No modernization really was forced upon people despite under
British rule- this title that the British held did not mean anything to
the majority of people
Tax introduced later
Senegal
Allowed for Senegalese to assimilate and become French citizens
but for the majority of the population- given its size (1.5 million)
this was not possible. Only 44,000 did so
In war and combat, white and Black men were equal by 1918, but only as
soldiers- in other aspects of life equality was a mere dream
In Senegal, Peanuts= cash crop for both farmers and colonial landowners-
bananas, cocoa and other things in other areas
the forcing of African farmers to grow cotton meant increased famines as
they could not focus on their own crops- maize, etc…
Lecture #2
Discourse of Dismissal
o Case studies of mass violence and genocide on the continent
of Africa
o Rwandan Genocide- 1994
www.notesolution.com
o Darfur Genocide- 2003-onwards- still in discussions in Sudan
on whether or not the south and north should separate
o Difficult to apply reason to violence and genocide- the find
something in common with the perpetrators of gruesome,
horrific acts.
o Because we find it hard to empathize with perpetrators of
these issues, we allude to tribalism or age-old tensions as the
cause
o Tribalism- a strong ethnic or cultural identity that separates
one group or another. However, term carries a barbaric,
primitive undertone in western society
o Because of these connotations, we assume African peoples to
be fundamentally different from us, and de-humanize them
and the issues they face.
o Lack of attention to issues such as Rwanda and Darfur creates
this ‘Discourse of Dismissal’
o In anthropology, Discourse evokes the Foucaudian
conversation of power structures and language patterns and
how we think about things.
o We develop a fundamental ethno-centric beliefs based on our
assertion of the natural, western way to be.
o The belief on the part of the West that we are superior to the
‘socialist east’ and ‘underdeveloped south’
o We believe a capitalist, secular society is the best and only
one. This creates a moral superiority complex as well- that we
are, and should be compassionate to others and that we have
nothing to learn from them.
Anthropological Analysis as Antidote
o Anthropologists try to find a way to understand a comparable,
human response to circumstances- to move beyond these
Western societal assumptions and consider historical, cultural
context of why people are they way they are and why they do
what they do.
Causality & History
www.notesolution.com
o Proximate causes- the immediate contexts for making a
decision- if you want to kill somebody but don’t have guns,
you cant shoot them so instead you stab them or beat them
o Ultimate Causes- an awareness of an opportunity to make a
decision. If you didn’t know that there are other options to
violence that are conceivable, you can’t make these decisions.
o Avoiding simplistic explanations
European Colonialism in Africa
o We need to get a clearer picture of Colonialism in order to
understand why it is so difficult for African societies to move
past.
o Colonialism- the formal political domination on one group
over another
o Why 1885? The 2nd Wave of Colonialism
! Industrial Capitalism
! Britain, the 1760s and the ‘putting out system’
! Britain- a major producer of cloth and textile, the
‘putting-out’ production system was integral. This
cottage industry was supplemented by merchants who
brought raw materials to families.
! This system didn’t work particularly well for the
merchants- increasing demand, new technology and
Dutch merchant competitors. Did not like outsourcing
work to cottage industries
! State stepped in and drafted Enclosure Acts to control
these cottage industries
! Poor and Vagrancy Laws- punishment was to be sent to
a factory
! Created a work force and forced people to move into
towns to work in factories, but these same people didn’t
make enough money to bring a consumer demand for
these products
! They didn’t have cheap enough raw goods to make
products affordable- so they needed colonies to have
access to cheap raw materials
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Post-Colonial Africa 18/04/11 10:06 PM This Magnificent African Cake- on hold at the Media Commons all semester 1117 people killed labeled niggers and though the murder ceased once they had them under control, used them for workers Kenya 1918- 4 million Kenyan farming acres given to British settlers, taxation introduced for Africans in cash (they could only procure this money by going to work for a European) School introduced for African children soldiers sent in to take kids away Northern Nigeria Kings able to stay in power and work together with European colonists both sides had much to gain No modernization really was forced upon people despite under British rule- this title that the British held did not mean anything to the majority of people Tax introduced later Senegal Allowed for Senegalese to assimilate and become French citizens but for the majority of the population- given its size (1.5 million) this was not possible. Only 44,000 did so In war and combat, white and Black men were equal by 1918, but only as soldiers- in other aspects of life equality was a mere dream In Senegal, Peanuts= cash crop for both farmers and colonial landowners- bananas, cocoa and other things in other areas the forcing of African farmers to grow cotton meant increased famines as they could not focus on their own crops- maize, etc Lecture #2 Discourse of Dismissal o Case studies of mass violence and genocide on the continent of Africa o Rwandan Genocide- 1994 www.notesolution.com o Darfur Genocide- 2003-onwards- still in discussions in Sudan on whether or not the south and north should separate o Difficult to apply reason to violence and genocide- the find something in common with the perpetrators of gruesome, horrific acts. o Because we find it hard to empathize with perpetrators of these issues, we allude to tribalism or age-old tensions as the cause o Tribalism- a strong ethnic or cultural identity that separates one group or another. However, term carries a barbaric, primitive undertone in western society o Because of these connotations, we assume African peoples to be fundamentally different from us, and de-humanize them and the issues they face. o Lack of attention to issues such as Rwanda and Darfur creates this Discourse of Dismissal o In anthropology, Discourse evokes the Foucaudian conversation of power structures and language patterns and how we think about things. o We develop a fundamental ethno-centric beliefs based on our assertion of the natural, western way to be. o The belief on the part of the West that we are superior to the socialist east and underdeveloped south o We believe a capitalist, secular society is the best and only one. This creates a moral superiority complex as well- that we are, and should be compassionate to others and that we have nothing to learn from them. Anthropological Analysis as Antidote o Anthropologists try to find a way to understand a comparable, human response to circumstances- to move beyond these Western societal assumptions and consider historical, cultural context of why people are they way they are and why they do what they do. Causality & History www.notesolution.com o Proximate causes- the immediate contexts for making a decision- if you want to kill somebody but dont have guns, you cant shoot them so instead you stab them or beat them o Ultimate Causes- an awareness of an opportunity to make a decision. If you didnt know that there are other options to violence that are conceivable, you cant make these decisions. o Avoiding simplistic explanations European Colonialism in Africa o We need to get a clearer picture of Colonialism in order to understand why it is so difficult for African societies to move past. o Colonialism- the formal political domination on one group over another nd o Why 1885? The 2 Wave of Colonialism Industrial Capitalism Britain, the 1760s and the putting out system Britain- a major producer of cloth and textile, the putting-out production system was integral. This cottage industry was supplemented by merchants who brought raw materials to families. This system didnt work particularly well for the merchants- increasing demand, new technology and Dutch merchant competitors. Did not like outsourcing work to cottage industries State stepped in and drafted Enclosure Acts to control these cottage industries Poor and Vagrancy Laws- punishment was to be sent to a factory Created a work force and forced people to move into towns to work in factories, but these same people didnt make enough money to bring a consumer demand for these products They didnt have cheap enough raw goods to make products affordable- so they needed colonies to have access to cheap raw materials www.notesolution.com Many nations went into capitalist/ financially motivated colonial missions by saying it was their duty to civilize the people of these banana republics. This rhetoric of justification was called The White Mans Burden (Rudyard Kipling) www.notesolution.com
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