Full Evolutionary Anthropology Notes.docx

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANT100Y1
Professor
Ivan Kalmar
Semester
Fall

Description
Introduction to Anthropology – Evolutionary Anthropology 12/18/2012 5:13:00 PM DAY 1 – SEPT 13 Four different fields  Evolutionary  Archaeology  Linguistic/simeotic(?)  Social/cultural Developed in 19 thcentury  Anthropologists used to be people who described outside world to a local community o Reported physical description of foreign people o Intellectual culture of other people o Monuments they built  Archaeologists recreated culture through artefacts  Linguists explained their language  Social used knowledge to enforce culture in colonies  Basically reporters of exotic lands and civilizations at the time Today‟s anthropologists are very different  Not just by western cultures anymore, studies encompass entire world rather than just exotic people  Interested in all facets of life – artefacts, society, language  Not strong believers in cultural effects on society Section 1: Evolutionary Anthropology  Dr. Shawn Lehman – AP404A (19 Russel St.) Tues 2-3pm  Application of modern evolu. Theory to studies of morphology, ecology, and behavior of human/non-human primates o Natural Selection o Mutations o Genetic Drift (only limited # of individuals will reproduce) o Gene Flow (movements of genes from one population to another)  About diversity of life on Earth o Evolution loves insects it seems  Five disciplines o Primatology  Study of non-human primates  Primate anatomy, field studies of wild animals, primate psychology  Seek to conserve primates in tropical ecosystems o Paleoanthropology  Bio. Evolution of humans and non-human primates  Advent of and changes in human cultural activities  Evo. History of behavior in human/non primates o Human Variation  Spatial and temporal variations in human features  Geographic and climatic variations in body size, skin colour, eye colour  What does it mean to be this variable yet the same species? o Medical Anthropology  Why is heart still one of most likely to fail organs?  Cultural and medical o Forensic Anthropology  Most applied aspect in all of Evolutionary Anthropology  TV Shows like CSI  Study of remains? Section 2: Linguistic/Semiotic  Semiotic – language in signs rather than just words o Sign is a symbol – pictures are signs o Signs are ways of representing/standing for things o All words are signs and all pictures are signs – representating  Re-present-ation – to re-give you something  Representation communication  Communication  Representation  Identity o Defined largely by how we communicate Section 3: Social Cultural Anthropology  The study of contemporary human society and culture  Not interested in physical evolution – human culture, actions, belfs.  Overlap between linguistic and social anthro.  Culture o Diverse ways people live around the world  Ethnography o Study of particular culture (methods)  Field work primary o Way that anthros. Represent work to others  Kinship o Way that people think about their relatedness to others o Who is related to whom, marriage rules, habitation rules  Gender o Role division b.t. men and women in society  Politics o nature conservation o social hierarchy  Economics o Agriculture, commerce  Religion o Ways that people conceptualize the world o Religious change and systems  Myth and Ritual  Colonization o Introduction of world wide economic system  Globalization o Increasing political and economic connectedness around the world Day 2 – Sept 20 Section 1: Evolutionary Anthropology www.Anthro.sa.utoronto.ca Dr. Shawn Lehmen – Tues 2-3 AP404A (19 Russell St.) Week 1 – Chapters 1-2 Section goals  Historical development of biological science  Diversity of life & natural processes produced this diversity  Fundamental biological & evolutionary concepts  How anthros. Apply evolutionary biology in their research Evolution ultimately about diversity  Also about Geology o Environment change, global warming, rivers shaping etc.  About water  About climate o How it alters habitats we live/evolve in  About life in all its forms Evolutionary Anthropology  Trying to place human evolution(morphology)/behaviour/ecology within framework constructed within evolutionary biology o Also includes non-human primates  Five research disciplines o Primatology  Non-human primates  Primate anatomy, field studies of wild animals, primate psychology  Primatologists seek to conserve primates o Paleoanthropology  Fossils  Bio evolution of human/non-human primates  Advent of/changes in human cultural activities  Evolutionary History of behavior in human and non- human primates o Human variation  Spatial and temporal variations in human features  Geographic o Medical Anthropology  How social/enviro/bio factors influence health and illness of individuals at the community/regional/national/global levels  Why starving children in some parts of world and fat ones in others? o Forensic Anthropology  Skeletal remains of humans  Seek to determine age/sex/stature/ancestry/trauma/disease of the deceased Major Questions about Humans and our Biology  How does evolution work and how does it apply to us?  What are biological characteristics of our species?  What is physical record of evolution (paleoanthropology)? CHECK POWERPOINT FOR RESEARCH METHOD!!!!! Four problems limited development of theory of evolution  Lack of knowledge of earth o Age of the Earth  1650, earth created on afternoon of Oct 23 4004 BCE  accepted because church pronouncements held as secular and religious law  Religious concept of fixity species o By 8 thcentury scientists say living things created in living form o CHECK PPT  Lack of scientific method o Many ideas and concepts based on singular observations or fanciful accounts of travellers o “broken telephone”  Religious notion of separate creation for humans and animals o Religious doctrine that god created humans separate from animals o Humans made in gods image more divinity than animals o Processes that work on animals could not work on more god like humans Carolus Linnaeus (Karl von Linne 1707-1778) st  1 comprehensive classification system for living things  each living thing named separate species  basis of physical resemblances, species grouped together into broader categories called genera (singular genus)  Binomial Nomenclature o First letter of genus capitalized i.e. Homo o Species designations always lower case i.e. sapiens o Off-set text: underline if hand-writing (Homo sapiens) or italicize when typing (Homo sapiens)  NOT an evolutionist o Thought he was cataloging god‟s work o Believed everything was built by god o Nature‟s ladder of which humans are pinnacle Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707-1788)  Earth‟s history >6000 years (ca. 75‟00 years) o Issue with contemporary religious authorities, forced to retract his statements by the church  Founded biogeography o Despite similar environments diff regions have distinct plants and animals  Variability, species distribution Jean-Baptists Lamarck (1744-1829)  Inheritance of acquired characteristics o Vital forces within creatures help them adapt to environ  Acquired traits o Developed through use or disuse, passed to future generations  Among first to formulate method for origination of new species through use or disuse of certain characters of organism Charles Darwin (1809-1882)  Naturalist on HMS Beagle, scientific expedition to Pacific coast of South America o Failed med school, went to seminary school instead o Collected fossils on this journey, sent them back to Europe  Observed incredible variety of living and especially fossilized creatures  Conclusion: no fixity of species and notion on short, catastrophic geological history for earth must be incorrect o Kept theories largely to himself  Variation Important in Evolution o Physical variety in any population of organisms o If variety provides advantage to certain individual then they may produce more offspring  Adaptation to environment o These offspring inherit beneficial variation so they produce more offspring: variation norm of population o Population may change, perhaps completely new & diff spec. o Darwin: individuals in a species adapt to environments & long-term adaptation means evolutionary shift in entire population in response to environmental change  Theory on Natural Selection o All extant and extinct species share a common ancestry o Evolve by natural selection  Process in nature resulting in survival and perpetuation of only those forms of life having certain favourable characteristics that enable them to adapt best to their environment o Alfred Russell Wallace (1823-1913)  Bug/fossil/artifact collector for a living  Wrote Darwin from Malaysia describing certain aspects theory of natural selection that Darwin had been researching for 20 years  Wallace‟s short sketch is far from massive body of evidence Darwin had collected but its core ideas were similar  Joint report on discoveries at Royal Geographic Society o “On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life” (1859)  Three Postulates of Darwinian Evolution o Struggle for existence – ability of population to expand is infinite but environment is finite o Variation in fitness – organisms vary, some individuals posess traits enabling them to survive & reproduce more successfully than others in the same environment o Inheritance of variation – advantageous traits inherited by offspring become more common in succeeding generations. Traits that confer advantages in survival and reproduction retained in population; disadv. Traits disappear  Could not explain how though o Word evolution does NOT appear in 1 ed. Of book  Most book about fossils/geology/geography  Avoided implications of general progress or directionality  Later works apply to humans & discuss other aspects of variation  Sexual selection o Certain evolutionary traits can be explained by intraspecific (within-species) competition Why doesn‟t evolution result in general increase of fitness of life to external world?  Reason: environments always changing  Relative to organisms, environs getting worse  Natural selection concerned with keeping up but every species eventually becomes extinct  Design limitations in biology Survival of the Fittest  Herbert Spencer NOT Charles Darwin o Proclaimed wrongly that struggle for existence in human society leads, in effect, to its evolution  Argued against policies, such as charity, that might interfere with process of producing fit individuals and institutions Darwinian Evolition & Inheritance  CHECK PPT Does Lamarckian Blending Work?  Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) o Priest, Czech republic o Experimented with pea-plants – why?  Inbred – true-breeding lines  Hybrids – quantify traits  Observable traits – flower/seed colour etc.  Plants small – easy to grow in large numbers, short generation time for several crosses per frowing season  Self-fertilizing – but can do cross-fertilizations  Bred them purely, only occasionally adding external traits to see what would happen o F1 generation was all yellow o F2 generation had 3:1 ratio of three yellow to one green o Conclusions  Each plant carries 2 copies of “factor” determines trait  If plants „breed true‟ then identical factors; otherwise one will „mask‟ the other trait  Published (1866) findings raised little interest  Mendel‟s laws  “Non-Mendelian” (multi-gene) Traits o eye colour o hair colour o Morton‟s toe o Tongue rolling  What really happened? o Mendel wasn‟t sure – no understanding of genetics then o Work forgotten until rediscovery in early 1900‟s Day 3 – Sept 27 Principles of Evolution Modern Synthesis of Evoltion  How evo works at level of phenotypes, genes, populations  Microevolution  Macroevolution  DNA -> RNA -> Protein Cell  Somatic cells – most cells in body  Gametes – sex cells (sperm and ovum) o Vast majority of animals  Cytoplasm – mix of membranes, molecules, organelles  Nucleus – hereditary material (chromosomes) Chromosomes  Paired rod shaped structures  Contain genes that transmit traits from generation to generation DNA  Deoxyriboneucleic acid o Nucleic acid used to store genetic info that codes for the synthesis of proteins  Four bases o Adenine (A) o Guanine (G) o Cytosine (C) o Thymine (T)  Code on one side of DNA strand determines everything RNA  Ribonucleic acid  Single stranded molecule  Dictate synthesis of proteins that perform wide variety of forums  Regulate expression of other genes  Work with structures in cell (ribosomes) that are critical for manufacture of proteins  Transport amino acids to ribosomes for creation of proteins Proteins  Linear sequences of amino acids – building blocks of cells  Each protein has specific function determined by blueprint stored in DNA  E.g. catalysis of all biochemical reactions is done by enzymes which contain protein (digestion); and many more  Each protein has a very specific function – building block of life o i.e. Hemoglobin transports oxygen in blood supply DNA & Protein Production  DNA transports info to RNA via transcription  RNA transports info to Protein via translation Transcription  Synthesis of single strand of RNA (mRNA – messenger) at unwound section of DNA with one of DNA strands serving as template o Interacts and makes mirror copy of one side of DNA strand  Result: genetic info encoded in DNA is transferred to RNA  mRNA carries info into cytoplasm, then protein synthesis occurs via translation Codons  Genetic info encoded in sequence of three nucleotides termed codons ex. AUG TUT TUA  Four nucleotides are o Adenine (A) o Guanine (G) o Cytosine (c) and uracil (U) which replaces thymine (T) o Typo on p. 27 of book  “Thus, a nucleotide sequence of AATTGC on one side of the DNA results in a corresponding mRNA sequence of UUAACG.” Translation  tRNA (transfer) is info adapter molecule o re-mirrors mRNA to get original DNA sequence  direct interface between amino acid sequence of protein & info in mRNA o decodes info in mRNA  Acceptor stem is site where specific amino acid is attached o Anticodon reads info in a mRNA sequence my base pairing Genetics & Heredity  Gene – chemical unit of heredity  Phenotype – observable physical appearance of organism o May or may not reflect genotype or total genetic constitn.  Genotype - Total complement of inherited traits or genes of an organism – genetic information  Alleles – one member of a pair of genes  Homozygous o Possessing two identical genes or alleles in corresponding locations on a pair of chromosomes  Ex. YY or yy  Heterozygous o Possessing differing genes or alleles in corresponding locations on a pair of chromosomes  Ex. Yy  Dominant alleles o Allele of gene pair that is always phenotypically expressed in heterozygous form  Y always expressed phenotypically when paired w/ y (Yy)  Recessive alleles o Allele phenotypically suppressed in heterozygous form & expressed only in homozygous form  Ex. Y only expressed phenotypically when paired with y (yy) eg. mandibular tori  Pheno ratio Dominant:Recessive is 3:1 (YY Yy Yy yy)  Geno ratio Dominant:Hetero:Recessive is 1:2:1 Mutation  Error or change in a nucleotide sequence  Randomly occurring process o Can be brought on by UV radiation o Certain chemicals (mutagens) can alter genetic code  Somatic cell mutations vs. germ cell mutations in terms of relevance to evolutionary anthropology  Can be neutral, harmful, beneficial to organisms o Rarely beneficial Genetic Drift – Population Genetics  Random changes in gene pool over time  Three important outcomes o Reduces within-population genetic variation o More likely to effect small population o Increases between-population genetic variation Gene Flow – Population Genetics  Movement of genes between populations  Two important outcomes o Initially, increases within-population genetic variation o Eventually, reduces between-population genetic variation Natural Selection  Any consistent difference in fitness among phenotypically different biological entities  Deterministic process involving differential reproductive success  Acts only on existing variation  “The Catch” – biological evolution can occur w/o natural selection and vice versa (can occur without biological evolution)  Three modes of selection o Directional selection  Process favouring either higher or lower values of character, thereby promoting variation o Stabilizing selection  Average phenotype is fittest – reduces variation  Selection against extremes or for common o Disruptive Selection:  Both extremes of trait are favoured – increases variation Adaptation  Process and feature o Process – change in organism enabling it to better reproduce and survive in environment o Feature – characteristic that performs function of utility to organism possessing it  Relatively rare – even Darwin could only think of 6, disqualified 3 Macroevolution  Large-scale changes at or above the species level  Extends over geologic era  Associated with research on the formation of new taxonomic groups Speciation  Evolutionary process involving formation of new species  12 modern species definitions o focus on biological species concept and phylogenetic species concept  Phylo – shared common genetic ancestry  controversial and interesting  adaptive or non-adaptive process?  Are intermediate forms needed in speciation? Modern Evolutionary Synthesis  Modern theory of evolutionary processes that emphasizes the combined action of four mechanisms of change: o Random selection o Natural selection o Genetic drift o Gene flow Cladistics  System of biological taxonomy based on quantitative analysis of comparative data that is used to reconstruct (assumed) phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of groups of organisms  Three major assumptions o There are changes in characteristics within lineages over time o All organisms descended from common ancestor o When a lineage splits, it divides into exactly two groups  Cladogram o Branching diagram used to illustrate phylogenetic relationships  Diagonal and Rectangular  Splits in branches called internal nodes  Ends where organisms are called terminal nodes  Outgroup helps determine whether trait is old or new – point of reference o Each
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