All the terms and notes from Lecture 1-5

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University of Toronto St. George
Christopher Watts

P a g e 1 BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY NOTES Research Topics o Primatology Study of primates, especially Homo Sapiens Cross over the study of hominids which include all ape-like ancestors o Paleoanthropology Combines the disciplines of paleontology and physical anthropology Study of ancient humans found in fossil hominid such as bonesfoot prints o Human variation Term used to describe genetic diversity of humans, and represent the total amount of genetic characteristics observed within human species. Introduces the term (allele) : two or more forms of DNA sequence in particular gene Introduces the term (polymorphism): the occurrence of different phenotypes exists in the same population of a species. It is also heritable, and modified by natural selection. o Medical anthropology Field that studies human health and disease Views human from multidimensional and ecological perspectives P a g e 2 o Forensic anthropology Application of the science of physical anthropology (study of human skeleton) Methods o Theory Brings together natural and social science to understand society in its complexity To solve problems, and it is an open system that allow free flow of process and interactions o Hypothesis Proposed explanation for an observable phenomenon o The Scientific Methods Quantitative Data Numerical data Data measured or identified on a numerical scale Can be analyzed using statistical methods Qualitative Data Term used to describe certain types of information P a g e 3 Can include well-defined aspects such as ( gender, nationality, yesno) Based on subjective ideas, then turn into a scientific research . Evolutionary concepts o Carl Linnaeus Father of modern taxonomy ( describing and naming species of living or fossil organism) Wrote Systema Natura Briefly disscuss about a second human species called Homo troglodytes (cave-dwelling men) Introduces the term mammalia to describe one of the characteristics of mammals who nurse their young. Linnean Taxonomy Consists of 3 kingdoms : Regnum Animale, Regnum Vegetable, Lapideum ( Animal, Vegetable, Mineral Kingdom) Animals were classified according to their mode of movement Binomial nomenclature Carl introduces this term, which is a combination of genus name and a second form which together identify each species of organism Ex : HOMO SAPIENS o Georges Louis Leclerc
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