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Study Guide

[JAV131H1] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (45 pages long)


Department
Architecture Studies
Course Code
JAV131H1
Professor
Hans Ibelings
Study Guide
Final

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UTSG
JAV131H1
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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1895 - 1914 New Forms
From the 19th Century:
New materials: Steel and reinforced concrete
New methods of production: industrial, mass production, standardisation
New needs of changing societies: urban middle class
Eiffel Tower:
New materials, new technology, scale unknown
Capped building height in Paris: 36m
Connection between development and innovation of new materials
Art Nouveau (Jugensdstil) “National Styles” 1890-1914
Interval period between Arts and Crafts and Modern Architecture, (19th Century and
1920s)
Failed attempt, New attempt of starting a new age of architecture/new styles
Art Nouveau: urban cosmopolitan style, and cultural style
Glasgow, Brussels, Paris, Vienna, Barcelona: urban setting for a new style
Isolated starting point of new development, cosmopolitan flair: Charles Rennie Mackintosh,
School of Art, Glasgow 1897-1909.
-Delicate/original ornamentation, a new style
-Asymmetrical/Free formed main entrance
-His own style completely different from existing style/originality/inventiveness
-Abstract/Simplification façade
-Extremely successful at the start of their career, but struggled to find work after or during
the First World War (applies to other famous architects at the time)
-Mackay Hugh Baillie Scott had a similar style like Mackintosh
Victor Horta, founding fathers of Art Nouveau in Brussels.
-Designing something that is different from the previous generation, hence being noticed
and introduced into the world of architecture
-Difference noted by critics and publishers
-Becoming more and more conventional
-Hence becoming more and more common, and becoming a new normal
-Then being replaced by the newer generation
-Built his own house
-Wife was a daughter of a successful industrialist
-Increased self esteem of architects at the time, they can design anything from
wallpapers to city planning
-Curvy/Expressional Façade
Henry Van de Valde (1863 - 1957)
-Had a longer career
-Popular in countries like Brussels and Germany
-Interested in designing everything like furniture and clothing
-More refrained, more simplified and more abstract
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Hector Guimard (1867 - 1942)
-Detail/decoration of an older style of building
-Designed the metro entrances in Paris
-Relied on mass produced steel
Henri Sauvage (1873 - 1932)
-Fled to NY in World War 2
-Forgotten closer to WW2 and end of career
-Floral natural motifs made by materials such as stone and steel
-Fireplace was a free standing object in the room, center piece of the building
“National” Art Nouveau
Ålesund, Norway
-Elements of Nouveau architecture as the city grew
Stanislaw Witkiewicz (1851 - 1915)
-Tried to start a new Polish national style
-Inspired by local vernacular architecture
-Furniture has the same slick curvy shape
-Inspiration outside the big cities
Antoni Gaudi (1852-1926)
-Constructed designs by making an upside down version of the structure by using
weights and chains
-Commissioned to build a park in a failed attempt at a suburban residential district
-Huge variety of forms with decoration of animal forms
-Hardly any straight lines in the floor plan
-Rich decoration and no reference to older styles
-Also designed furniture
-Converted Casa Batlo 1904
Mikhail Eisenstein, Riga 1903
-Overall style looks very conventional
-With very detailed and unique detailed decoration
Lars Sonck, Helsinki
-More national Scandinavian architecture
-Moving away from its conventional interpretation
American Parallels to Art Nouveau
Charles and Henry Greene, Pasadena
-More conventional, with minor unique details
Frank Lloyd Wright
-Had a very long career
-Moonlighted and got fired when he started his own independent career
-Designed his Home and Studio in Chicago
-He was anti-urban
-Unity Church: Light is coming into the building, but there is no view, in order to give
people an “escape” from the city
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