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FAH230 - Final Exam Review.docx

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Flora Ward

FINAL EXAM REVIEW: Week 8: The Genius of Leonardo  Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) oKey protagonist of the „high renaissance‟ - considered the founder of this period o Leonardo was 12 or 13 when his family moved to Florence from the Tuscan village of Vinci o In Florence, Leonardo did an apprenticeship with Florentine painter and sculptor Verrocchio o After his apprenticeship he spent a number of years on his own and in 1481 or 1482 he traveled to Milan to work for the ruling Sforza family o While in Milan he spent much of his time on military and civil engineering projects, including both urban-renewal and fortification plans for the city (but he also created a few key monuments of Renaissance painting) oFirst artist in Vsari‟s lives of Italian Artists o Wrote a lot of treatise about a number subjects including the art of painting, engineering, hydraulics, nature, botany, geology etc. o Leonardo was 12 or 13 when his family moved to Florence from the Tuscan village of Vinci  1. Andrea del Verrocchio and workshop, completed by Leonardo, Baptism of Christ, 1468- 77, oil on wood, Florence, Uffizi o Completed by Leonardo and his painting school o Standard iconography for the depiction of the baptism of Christ o Leonardo is responsible for the angel on the left, which he completed when he was still very young o Verrocchio‟s workshop mainly known for sculpture, but obviously they did some painting as well o Verrocchio‟s style is more cutting, harsh and well defined – in young Leonardo‟s we already see a softness and more colorful hand o Definition between figures and background is very harsh – Leonardo‟s own paintings would include the sfumato technique – the blurring of contours  2. Leonardo, Portrait of Ginevra de’Benci, 1474-78, oil on panel o By the time Leonardo creates this work he is an artist working on his own (with his own workshop) o Painting is unique because it is painted on both sides o According to the prof the back is as important as the front o Completed using the oil on panel technique – developed in the north and brought to Italy (Florence) o Subject stands in front of a bush of Juniper (ginepro) = Ginevra – seems like the juniper motif was used as a symbolic pun on Ginevra‟s name – however the pun is not supported by any contemporary source and the juniper stood as a symbol of sorrow, pain and loss in the whole of the Middle Ages (therefore frequently used in portraits of widows) o In the back we see a laurel and the Juniper bush again – tied together by a latin inscription  “Virtutem dormat decorat” = Beauty adorns virtue o Ginevra shows no hint of a simile and her gaze, though forward, seems indifferent to the viewer o Technical analysis:  Scholars have understood this painting as have been cut on both sides at some point  Reason for this attribution is that the earliest descriptions talk about the hands o Technical analysis reveals that the painting used a prototype from his own workshop (Verrocchio): o 3. Verrocchio, Portrait of a Lady with Flowers, ca. 1475, Florence  Sculpture served as a prototype on how to construct this work  Verrocchio‟s sculpture is a frontal bust with the sitter looking directly at us o In Leonardo‟s painting there is a sense of movement – so not an exact copy/use of the prototype o Juniper bush (dark bush behind the figure) creates one of the earliest examples of the chiaroscuro technique  Chiaroscuro = light/dark contrast – enhances the 3-d forms  Sfumato = blurring of contours   4. Leonardo, Adoration of the Magi, 1481-2, oil on wood, Florence, Uffizi o Last work of Leonardo‟s in Florence - not complete - we only see the first layers of colors - shows us how the artist thought in pictorial terms o Allows us to see how Leonardo actually created a work of art and the technicalities of the artist‟s craft o Painting is ichnographically important as well as the Adoration of the Magi was always depicted a certain way – o Typical Magi Scene- 5. Gentile da Fabriano, Adoration of the Magi, 1423, Florence, Uffizi  Scene depicts the three Magi and the courtiers  Scene of the Virgin and Jesus are always located on one side to leave room for the parade of the magi o In Leonardo‟s Adoration he places his theological argument/figures at the centre of the composition o There is a sense of movement – the Magi here are not the protagonists – Madonna and child are the protagonists placed directly at the centre o Christ – manifestation of the new religion and also the redemption and salvation for followers against paganism – represented in the painting as ancient ruins  Leonardo sent a letter to the duke of Milan (Sforza) - indicating at least 10 different fields he could him help him with - including last that he could serve as a painter as well - presented himself as an engineer, architect, artist, sculpture etc. (artist in the fullest sense)  6. Leonardo, Study for the Sforza monument, 1488-89 o Colossal Equestrian monument – celebration of the Sforza as the rulers of Milan o The monument was actually never realized o We know about it through Leonardo‟s preparations for it (drawings and studies) o It was supposed to be 7m in height (more than 3x life size) and sit in a public square in front of the cathedral of Milan o Proposed size of the Sforza monument far greater than the equestrian monuments we have encountered – 7. Verrocchio, Equestrian Monument of Bartolomeo Colleoni, approx.4m, 1481-95, Venice and 8. Donatello, Equestrian Monument to Gattamelata, 1447-53, 3.4m, Padua o Leonardo was to create a horse that was in movement and defeating an enemy thus completely different to the other two in terms of technicalities o Both Donatello‟s and Verrocchio‟s were cast in multiple bronze pieces o Leonardo wanted to cast it in one piece – it took him years to come up with the technique o Why wasn‟t it completed?  In 1499 the French army invaded Milan and Leonardo had to leave the city without completing the project o The process of thinking about a new project that would challenge traditional artistic creations is what makes it important  9. Leonardo, The Virgin of the Rocks, ca. 1485, oil on wood, Louvre o While he was engaged with the Duke of Milan he still took on other projects o The Virgin of the Rocks was painted for the Confraternity of the Immaculate Conception to paint an altarpiece for their chapel in the church of San Francesco Grande in Milan o The subject is the immaculate conception of the Virgin o The immaculate conception was debated by Franciscans and Dominicans o There was no iconography for the immaculate conception o The Virgin on the Rocks is one of the earliest manifestations of the Dogma o Virgin is on one hand holding St. John the Baptist (on the left - Jesus‟ younger cousin), and on the other she is trying to reach Jesus who is blessing St. John o The enigmatic figure of the angel (to the right of Jesus) – who looks out without actually making eye contact with the viewer – points to the centre of interaction o Theme of the immaculate conception is recreated in the background behind rocks, which mirrored the contemporary dogmatic texts o The stable, balanced, pyramidal figural group – a compositional formula that will become a standard feature of High Renaissance Classicism - is set against the exquisitely detailed landscape that dissolves mysteriously into the misty distance o To assure that the figures dominate the composition, Leonardo picks them out with spotlights, creating a strong chiaroscuro that enhances their modeling as 3-D forms o The painting is also an excellent example of the specific variant of the sfumato technique in which there are subtle, almost imperceptible transitions between light and dark in shading, as if the painting is seen through smoke or fog o The first of the Virgin on the Rocks was not given to the patron but sold on the open market – why he would have done so to make more money is unknown, but we do have the legal documents to back this up  10. Leonardo, The Virgin of the Rocks, about 1491-2/1506-8, oil on poplar, National Gallery o The Franciscan friars still wanted the painting they paid Leonardo for o Scholars have traditionally seen the Louvre version as the first and the London version as the copy – but according to our reading they are both originals o Technical analysis:  What do we learn?  Leonardo wanted to change the subject but then modified his own iconography and returned back to the original work of art  Both paintings were originals by the artist – the London version was the one that ended up in the Franciscan church were it was displayed as an altarpiece  Two paintings differ in compositional details, in colour, in lighting and the handling of the paint  Both paintings show a grouping of four figures arranged in a triangular composition – where the Virgin is the apex of the pyramidal figure group (St. John, The Virgin, Jesus and the Angel)  The main compositional difference between the two paintings is that while in the London painting, the angel‟s right hand rests on her knee, in the Louvre painting the hand is raised, the index finger pointing at John the Baptist  London version all the forms are more defined and the rocks are painted in meticulous detail o Two works of art with the same subject was an unfamiliar concept in the Renaissance, unlike today where artists often create multiple originals  11. Leonardo, The Last Supper, 1495-98, tempera and oil on plaster, refectory, Milan, Santa Maria delle Grazie o Canonical scene for Monastery refectories o Patronized by the Sforza in Milan – whose coat of arms is seen above the last supper scene o Canonical last super before Leonardo – 12. Andrea del Castagno, The Last Supper, ca.1445-50, Florence, Refectory of Sant’ Apollonia  Breaking with traditional representations of the subject, Leonardo placed the traitor Judas – clutching his money bags in the shadows – within the triad to the left of Jesus, along with the young John the Evangelist and the elderly Peter, rather than isolating him on the opposite side of the table  Judas, Peter and John were each to play an essential role in Jesus‟ mission: Judas set in motion the events leading to Jesus‟ sacrifice; Peter led the Church after Jesus‟ death; and John, the visionary, foretold the Second Coming and the Last Judgement in the Book of Revelations o Main innovation of Leonardo is that Judas is inscribed within the other 12 apostles and thus not alone on the other side of the table (as had been in previous Last Super representations) o In fictive space defined by a coffered ceiling and four pairs of tapestries that seem to extend the refectory itself into another room, Jesus and his disciples are seated at a long table placed parallel to the picture plane and to the monastic diners who would have been seated in the hall below o In a sense, Jesus‟ meal with his disciples prefigures the daily gathering of this local monastic community at mealtimes o The stagelike space recedes from the table to the three windows on the back wall, where the vanishing point of the one-point linear perspective lies behind Jesus‟ head o A stable, pyramidal Jesus at the center is flanked by his 12 disciples, grouped in four interlocking sets of three o On one level, Leonardo has painted a scene from a story:  One that captures the individual reactions of the apostles to Jesus‟ announcement that one of them will betray him – they were astonished, so the work allowed Leonardo to continue his study of emotions and how we express them with our face, hands, gestures etc.  Leonardo was an acute observer of human behavior, and his art captures human emotions with compelling immediacy o On the other level, The Last Super is a symbolic evocation of Jesus‟ coming sacrifice for the salvation of humankind, the foundation of the institution of the Mass o The painting‟s careful geometry, the convergence of its perspective lines, the stability of its pyramidal forms, and Jesus‟ calm demeanor at the mathematical centre of all the commotion together reinforce the sense of gravity, balance and order. o The clarity and stability of this painting epitomize High Renaissance style o State of preservation:  The painting is really in ruins and there may not be any evidence of it within the next century  It has gone through several restorations, but there is still no way to prevent the ruins  Instead of painting in fresco, Leonardo devised an experimental technique for this mural  Hoping to achieve the freedom and flexibility of painting on wood panel, he worked directly on dry intonaco – a thin layer of smooth plaster – with an oil-and-tempera paint for which the formula is unknown – the combination of tempera and oil techniques don‟t go well together and the result was disastrous  Within a short time, the painting had begun to deteriorate, and by the middle of the 16 century its figures could be seen only with difficulty th  In the 17 century the monks saw no harm in cutting a doorway through the lower center of the composition  The painting narrowly escaped complete destruction in WWII, when the refectory was bombed to rubble  13. Leonardo, Vitruvian Man, ca. 1490, Venice o Geometrical structure, measured body o Represents the perfect human proportions o On the paper the Vitruvian Man was draw on, we see an example of Leonardo‟s reverse handwriting – he was left handed and wrote in reverse (you need a mirror to read his writing)  14. Rubens, Copy of Leonardo’s The Battle of Anghiari, 1600-08 o Original fresco would have been situated in Sala del Gran Consiglio (Hall of the Great Council – Florentine Government building) along with one made by Michelangelo o Both are the same battle scenes, but carried out with completely different approaches o Leonardo kept trying to advance the Fresco painting technique  15. Sabastiano da Sangallo, Copy of Michelangelo’s Battle of Cascina, 1542 o Michelangelo chose the moment of repose, whereby the naked warriors who were bathing were given the announcement that the enemies were coming o B/c of the circumstances, all the figures are in movement – it is thus a study of the male nude body  16. Leonardo, Portrait of Lisa Gheradini (Mona Lisa), ca. 1503-06, Paris, Louvre oOne of the icons of the renaissance - continuously recreated sense them oVsari - “Leonardo undertook to execute, for Francesco del Giocondo, the portrait of Mona Lisa, his wife; and after toiling over it for four years, he left it unfinished; and the work is now in the collection of King Francis of Frsance, at Fointanebleau..” o Commission of a female subject was a male commission o We know the sitter‟s name - Francesco del Giocondo‟s wife o Painting was incomplete - by 1568 the painting was already in France o Portrait was never given to the sitter - Leonardo held onto it from Florence, o Why a renaissance artist would do something unusual is unknown (a mystery) - paintings were created for a patron o Amazing work of art - way Vsari describes what he is able to accomplish is important o Championed the Chiaroscuro technique here - also Sfumato (beginning of the hair and end of the face is hard to distinguish - very natural) o Sitter is in the immediate foreground seated on a chair - under a loggia/balcony - opened to the landscape/background oVsari recognized Leonardo‟s artistic sophistication and excellence oEnigmatic smile - we don‟t fully capture and understand oPainting widely copied – 17. Mona Lisa, Louvre version compared with cleaned Prado version (1503)  Copy from an artist within his workshop  We can clearly see the loggia and chair she is sitting in  Since the copy is soo early and understood to have been completed within his workshop has been helpful for us to understand the details - we can clearly see its a copy through the hands and smile  18. Nude variation of Mona Lisa, ca. 1515, chalk and gouche, Chantilly, Musee Conde oSuch an astonishing manifestation of beauty - copied over and over again oSame smile but reimagined  He had a sense of himself as an innovator, also studying art in the full sense - studying nature, botany, engineering, architecture, painting etc. Week 9: Raphael and Michelangelo at work: art and architecture  Michelangelo o Born in the Tuscan town of Caprese into an impoverished Florentine family that laid a claim to nobility o He grew up in Florence, where at age 13 he apprenticed to Ghirlandaio, in who workshop he learned the technique of fresco painting and studied drawings of Classical monuments o Afterwards he joined the household of Lorenzo the Magnificent, head of the ruling Medici family o While with Lorenzo he came into contact with Neoplatonic philosophy and studied sculpture with Bertoldo di Giovanni, a pupil of Donatello o After Lorenzo died in 1492, Michelangelo traveled to Venice and Bologna, then returned to Florence  19. Michelangelo, Pieta’, ca. 1500, marble, St.Peter’s, Vatican, Rome o An early work of Michelangelo that is reflective of his start as a sculptor o Commissioned by a French cardinal (Patron) and installed as a tomb monument in Old St.Peter‟s o The theme of the Pieta‟ – in which the Virigin supports and mourns the dead Jesus in her lap – had been long popular in northern Europe, but was an unusual theme in Italy at the time o Michelangelo traveled to the marble quarries at Carrara in central Italy to select the block from which to make this large work o The choice of stone was important to him because he envisioned his sculpture as already existing within the marble, needing only the tools to set it free o Michelangelo‟s Virgin/Madonna is a young women of heroic stature (idealized), holding the unnaturally smaller, lifeless body of her grown son o The treatment of the marble was very polished (unique) and the drapery is carved in a complex way o Michelangelo‟s compelling vision of beauty was meant to be seen up close so that the viewer can look directly into Jesus‟ face o One of the very few works that Michelangelo signed in his career – the 25 year old artist is said to have slipped into the church at night to sign the statue on a strap across the Virgin‟s breast after it was finished, answering directly questions that had come up about the identity of its creator  20. Michelangelo, David, 1501-04, 5.18m without pedestal, marble, Florence o In 1501, Michelangelo accepted a Florentine commission for a statue of the biblical hero David, to be placed high atop a buttress of the cathedral o Statue is twice life sized o When completed the statue was so admired that the city council placed it in the principal city square, next to the Palazzo della Signoria, the seat of Florence‟s government o Although in its muscular nudity David embodies the antique ideal of the athletic male nude, the emotional power of its expression and its concentrated gaze are entirely new o It is the quintessential manifestation of a biblical figure who defeated the giant Goliath – representative of the chose people and the force of God who allowed mankind to do impossible things o Unlike Donatello’s bronze David, this is not a triumphant hero with the trophy head of the giant Goliath already under his feet o Slingshot over his shoulder and a rock in his right hand, Michelangelo‟s David knits his brow and stares into space, seemingly preparing himself psychologically for the danger ahead – a mere youth confronting a gigantic experienced warrior o No match for his opponent in experience, weaponry, or physical strength, Michelangelo‟s powerful David stands for the supremacy of right over might – a perfect emblem of the Florentines, who had recently fought the forces of Milan, Siena and Pisa and still faced political and military pressure.  21. Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel Ceiling, 1508-12, vault frescos, Vatican o In 1505, Pope Julius II, who saw Michelangelo as an ideal collaborator in the artistic aggrandizement of the papacy, arranaged for him to come to Rome to work on the spectacular tomb of Julius planned for himself o Michelangelo began the tomb project, but two years later the pope ordered him to begin painting the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel instead o Michelangelo considered himself a sculptor, but the strong-minded pope wanted paintings; work began in 1508 o Sistine chapel is the place where the cardinals congregate to elect a new pope o 21a. Baccio Pontelli, Sistine Chapel, 1477-81, Exterior view o 21b. Gustavo Tognetti, reconstruction drawing from 1899 of the appearance of the Sistine Chapel, ca. 1483  Reconstruction of the Sistine chapel before Michelangelo  Important as it shows there were biblical scenes painted in frescoes before his work began o 21c. Michelangelo, Sistine Ceiling, General view with vault frescos, 1508-12, Vatican  Iconography comes from the book of Genesis  Creation stories – temptation and expulsion of Adam and Eve  Orientation of frescos towards the alter  What is new with Michelangelo‟s fresco program is he decided to render the old testament stories in the center – prophets and sibyls around – with an architectural frame (all painted) surrounding it  Center of the ceiling is divided into nine compartments containing successive scenes of Genesis – the Creation, the Fall, and the Flood – beginning over the altar and ending near the chapel entrance  Gods earliest acts are closed to the altar, the Creation of Eve at the centre of the ceiling, followed by the imperfect actions of humanity: Temptation, Fall, Expulsion from Paradise, and God‟s eventual destruction of all people except Noah and his family by the Flood o 21d. The Creation of Adam  Perhaps the most familiar scene on the ceiling  Captures the moment when god charges Adam with the spark of life  As if to echo the biblical text, Adam‟s heroic body, outstreatched arm, and profile almost mirror those of God, in whose image he has been created  Fore shorting and simple scene  Emerging under God‟s other arm, and looking across him in the direction of her future mate, is the robust and energetic figure of Eve before her creation o 22e. Fall and Expulsion of Adam and Eve from Garden of Eden  Colori cangianti (=changeable colors) - technique invented by Michelangelo  Allowed him to use contrasting colours for a highlighting effect  As much as Leonardo‟s work were about interplay of lightness and darkness (chariscuru) - Michelangelo uses a totally different way of using colours to define the 3 dimensionality of the bodies o 22f. Lybian Sibyl  Sibyl - female figures from Antiquity - mentioned by the fathers of the church in their writing - they made prophecies – were believed to have foretold Jesus‟ birth  Theological notion - bring together antiquity and the christian doctrines  Iconography of Sibyls - books b/c they make prophecies  Unnatural movement - but also muscular female body - we know that the artist studied male bodies to create female bodies  He could have created a female idealized body if he wanted to - but chose not to o 22e. Ignudi=nude young men  Astonished figures mainly for the careful study of the naked male body - also for the postures and movement - all very unnatural  Raphael (1483-1520) o About 1505 – while Leonardo was working on the Mona Lisa – Raphael (Raffaello Santi) arrived in Florence from his native Urbino after studying in Perugia with the city‟s leading artist, Perugino  23. Pietro Perugino, Madonna and Child, ca. 1500, Washington o Raphael quickly became successful in Florence, especially with small, polished paintings of the Virgin and Child such as the: 24. Raphael, The Small Cowper Madonna, ca. 1505, Washington  Already a superb painter technically, the youthful Raphael shows his indebtedness to his teacher in the delicate tilt of the figures‟ heads, the brilliant tonalities, and the pervasive sense of serenity  Raphael was also clearly impacted by Leonardo evidenced by the simple grandeur of these monumental shapes, the pyramidal composition activated by the spiraling movement of the child, and the draperies that cling to the Virgin‟s substantial form - 25. Leonardo, Benois Madonna, 1481, St. Petersburg  Building in the back of the painting has been identified as the church of St.Bernadine in Urbino  26. Raphael, Portrait of Agnolo Doni and Portrait of Maddalena Strozzi Doni, 1506, o While Raphael was producing engaging images of elegant Madonnas, he was also painting portraits of prosperous Florentine patron o To commemorate the marriage in 1504 of 30-year old cloth merchant Agnelo Doni to Maddalena Storizzi, the 15- year old daughter of a powerful banking family, Doni commissioned from Rpahael pendent portraits of the newelyweds o Both subjects are set against meticulously described panoramic landscapes – turning to address the viewer o The two portraits give us an impression of the wealth of the patrons (clothes and jewelry) o Maddalena‟s pose imitates Leonardo‟s innovative presentation of his subject in the Mona Lisa, which Raphael had obviously seen in progress in Florence o With Maddalena there is no sense of mystery, indeed little psychological presence, and Raphael follows tradition in emphasizing the sumptuousness of her clothing and making ostentatious display of her jewelry. Only the wisps of hair that escape from her sculpted hairstyle offer a hint of human vulnerability in her proud demeanor o Agnelo is commanding but casual, leaning his arm on a balustrade to add 3-d to his posture  Raphael got many commissions in Florence, but was also called by Pope Julius II in 1508 while Michelangelo was working on the Sistine Chapel  Pope Julius II put him to work almost immediately decorating rooms in the papal apartments  27. Raphael, Portrait of Pope Julius II, ca. 1512, London, National Gallery o Pope Julius II was the man behind the patronage of Michelangelo and Raphael who were “two major enterprises in the Vatican” o In the portrait Julius looks old, but he was very powerful and changed the art world in Rome o It is a modest representation of a man who was really a “super pope”  28. Raphael, Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, commissioned by Julius II from Raphael, 1508-11 o Set of rooms that were original Pope Julius‟ private rooms (known as the Stanze) – included a library and private apartment o Raphael painted the four branches of knowledge as conceived in the 16 century: Religion (the Disputa, depicting discussions concerning the true presence of Christ in the Eucharistic Host), Philosophy (the School of Athens), Poetry (Parnassus, home of the Muses), and Law (the Cardinal Virtues under Justice)  28a. Raphael, School of Athens, 1510-11, fresco in Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican, Rome o Raphael‟s most influential achievement in the papal rooms o Here Raphael seems to summarize the ideals of the Renaissance papacy in a grand conception of harmoniously arranged forms in a rational space, as well as in the calm dignity of the figures that occupy it o If Julius II did not actually devise the subjects, he certainly approved them o Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle are the central figures – they are placed to the right and left of the vanishing point o Plato points with his finger upwards to the realm of ideas and pure forms that were at the centre of his philosophy, while his pupil Aristotle gestures toward the surroundings, signifying the empirical world that for him served as the basis for understanding o Surrounding the two philosophers are mathematicians, naturalists, astronomers, geographers, and other philosophers, debating and demonstrating their theories with and to onlookers and each other o The scene takes place in an immense barrel-vaulted interior, flooded with a clear, even light from a single source, and seemingly inspired by the new design for St.Peter‟s, under construction at the time o The grandeur of the building is matched by the monumental dignity of the philosphers themselves, each of whom has a distinct physical and intellectual presence o Raphael placed his own portrait in a group that includes the geographer Ptolemy, who holds a terrestrial globe, and the astronomer Zoraster, who holds a celestial globe – his positioning here relates to linear perspective (math linked to art directly) o The sweeping arcs of the composition are activated by the variety and energy of their poses and gestures, creating a dynamic unity that is a prime characteristic of High Renaissance art  29. Marcantonio Raimondi after Raphael, Apollo, 1512-15, engraving o Prints circulated reproducing the whole subject, or simply parts of it – such as the statue of Apollo in a niche o The mythological figure of Apollo is taken from the Fresco – it circulated individually as an engraving o Apollo - the god of sunlight, rationality, poetry, music and the fine arts  30. Giorgio Ghisi, The School of Athens, after Raphael, after 1559 o Print representative of the whole scene o Carved at the moment of reformation – important theological argument for the Roman Catholic church who created a prehistory linked to ancient knowledge o These images were used a counter-reformation subjects as the references to antiquity were made to represent the beginning of Christianity and the apparent continuity between them  31. Raphael, Cartoon for Tapestry Portraying Christ’s charge to Peter, ca. 1515-16 o In 1515, Raphael was commissioned by Pope Leo X to provide designs on themes from the Acts of the Apostles to be woven into tapestries for the strip of blank wall below the 15 century wall paintings of the Sistine Chapel th o With the murals by the leading painters of the 15 century above and Michelangelo‟s work circling over all, Raphael must have felt both honored and challenged. The pope had given him the place of honor among the artists in the papal chapel o For the production of the tapestries, woven in Brussels, Raphael and his large workshop of assistants made full-scale charcoal drawings, then painted over them with color for the weavers to match – Pictorial weaving was the most prestigious and expensive kind of wall decoration o Series of 10 tapestries commissioned for the Sistine chapel – cost Leo X more than five times what Julius II had paid Michelangelo to paint the ceiling – though Raphael only received 1/16 of the total cost as the cost here involved production more than design o Tapestries are now in the Vatican museum – even when a new pope is elected in the Sistine Chapel there is no tapestries – they are now considered works of art o In the renaissance they were used to maintain warmth within the space o The scene of Christ’s Charge to Peter – Christ‟s gesture addresses the kneeling Peter specifically rather than the whole apostolic group – this would have been an important detail since papal power rested in the belief that Christ had transferred authority to Peter, who was considered the first pope, with subsequent popes inheriting this authority in unbroken succession o 31a. Shop of Pieter van Aelst, Brussels, after cartoon by Raphael, Christ’s Charge to Peter, Woven 1517, installed 1519  Raphael and his workshop did cartoons (final drawings) for the 10 tapestries  The cartoons were woven and became tapestries – however they are revered  The cartoons remained in Brussels where they were used to create additional sets of tapestries  Material is golden and silk threads – very precious materials  Rendering is very well done  Huge investment on the part of the pope to first commission Raphael and then send them to Brussels to get them realized  First tapestries were installed in 1519, and the entire cycle was installed by Leo X‟s death in 1521  32. Michelangelo, Last Judgment, Sistine Chapel, 1536-1541 o Following the attack and destruction of Rome in 1527 under Pope Clement VII by Emperor V, his successor Paul III was the first pope to pursue church reform in response to the rise of Protestantism o Pope Paul III also addressed Protestantism through repression and censorship. In 1542, he instituted the Inquisition, a papal office that sought out heretics for interrogation, trail and sentencing. The enforcement of religious unity extended to the arts. Guidelines issued what could be represented in Christian art and led to the destruction of some works o To restore the heart of the city of Rome, Paul III began rebuilding the Capitoline Hill as well as continuing work on St. Peter‟s. His first major commission, Last Judgment, brought Michelangelo, after a quarter of a century, back to the Sistine Chapel o In his early sixties, Michelangelo complained bitterly of feeling old, but he nonetheless undertook the important and demanding task of painting the Last Judgment on the 48- foot-high end wall above the Sistine Chapel altar o The painting is actually an altarpiece – new conception of an altarpiece – not only in terms of the genre but also iconography o He was advised by theologians at the papal court o The subject of the last judgment was totally reinvented – abandoning the clearly organized medieval conception of the Last Judgment, in which the saved are neatly separated from the damned o On the left (Christ‟s right side), the dead are dragged from their graves and pushed up into a vortex of figures around Christ, who wields his arms like a sword of justice o The shrinking Virgin under Christ‟s raised right arm represents a change from Gothic tradition, where she had sat enthroned beside, and equal in size to her son – The Last Judgment, Detail of Christ and his mother, the Virign Mary o To the right of Christ‟s feet is St. Bartholomew, who in legend was martyred for being skinned alive – The Last Judgment, Detail of St.Bartholomew holding his flayed skin  He holds his flayed skin, and Michelangelo seems to have painted his own distorted features on the skin‟s face o Despite the efforts of several saints to save them at the last minute, the damned are plunged toward hell on the right o On the lowest level of the mural, right above the altar, is the gaping, fiery entrance to hell o Michelangelo faced huge criticism for his nude figures within the chapel and all the naked bodies were covered with bits of drapery – this lead to his return to Florence  33. Michelangelo, Tomb of Giuliano de Medici with allegorical figures of Night and Day, ca. 1519-34, New Sacristy, Florence, San Lorenzo o After the Medici regained power in Florence in 1512, and Leo X succeeded Julius in 1513, Michelangelo became chief architect for Medici family projects at the church of San Lorenzo in Florence – including a new chapel for the tombs of Lorenzo the Magnificent, his brother Giuliano, and two younger dukes, also named Lorenzo and Giuliano, ordered in 1519 for the so-called New Sacristy o One of Michelangelo‟s most amazing works o Figure of Giuliano de Medici is situated within a niche (in classicizing armor)- two allegorical figures in front of him (representing allegories of Night and Day)  34. Michelangelo, Vestibule of the Laurentian Library, San Lorenzo, Begun 1524; stairway designed in the 1550s o Stairs are located at the entrance to the Laurentian library of San Lorenzo cathedral o Continued Brunelleschi‟s use of the dark gray pietra serena in a new way o Door is almost too big for the space itself – as if it had been placed within a narrow space with doubled columns on each side – played with architectural forms in different ways o Three flights are stairs are not necessary, but they create a sense of grandeur o Though their playfulness these creative combinations of architectural forms draw attention to themselves and their design rather than the function of building or the comfortable accommodation of its users o Michelangelo never saw the final realization of the tombs or the vestibule of San Lorenzo because he returned to Rome – other artists worked on his deigns and plans  35. A.Michelangelo and Bramante, Plan for St.Peter’s, 1506 and 1546-64 o B. Old St.Peters was a 4thcentury Basilica (built by Constantine) – which marked the spot of St. Peter‟s burial spot – it was a simple church with a very long nave to accommodate crowds of pilgrims o In 1506 Pope Julius II made the astonishing decision to demolish the Constantinan basilica, which had fallen into disrepair, and to replace it with a new building (Julius II was definitely not a week man) o To design and build the new church, the pope appointed Donato Bramante, who envisioned the new St.Peter‟s as a central plan building, in this case a Greek cross (with four arms of equal length) crowned by an enormous dome o The deaths of pope and architect in 1513-1514 put a temporary halt to the project. Successive designs by Raphael, Antonio da Sangallo, and others changed the Greek-cross plan into a Latin cross (with three shorter arms and one long one) o When Michelangelo was appointed architect in 1546, he returned to the Greek-cross plan and simplified Bramante‟s design to create a single, unified space covered with a hemispherical dome o Later popes decided this centralized plan couldn‟t accomade the visitors or chapels o The New St.Peters (as we know it today) is slightly different from the Old St.Peters but it sill maintains a longitudinal nave connected to St.Andrew‟s cross – basically a combination of the two plans – designed by C.Maderno, Plan of St. Peter’s Basilica, 1607-12  36. Michelangelo, Dome of St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican, 1546-64 o Dome was one of his latest works – completed some years after his death by Giacomo della Porta, who retained Michelangelo‟s basic design, but gave the dome a taller profile o Dome is segmented with regularly spaced ribs, seated on a high drum with pedimented windows between paired columns, and surrounded by a tall lantern reminiscent of Bramante‟s Tempietto, and Brunelleschi‟s Dome of the Florence Cathedral (completed a century earlier) Week 11: Renaissance Venetian Art – Venice in the 16 century: Giorgione, Titian and the notion of colore  37. Jacapo de Barbari, View of Venice, 1500, woodcut o View of Venice – from the very beginning had a strong geographical position - the lagoon was a natural defense against outsiders o Venice was the greatest commercial sea power in the Mediterranean o The religious and the civic powers are connected in the same square o Space was always a problem – the islands could not be extended – buildings had to rise up o The oil technique developed in Venice after the Netherlands - this was not the ideal place for frescoes because of the climate and water o Very wealthy citizens o Recall Raimondi – printing – copy issue with Durer  37. Giovanni Bellini, San Giobbe Altarpiece, ca.1478, oil on panel, Venice th o He was a well known artist in Venice around the end of the 15 century o All the saints are placed against a mosaic apse – inside a church – similar to a Venetian church at the time o St. Francis – showing his stigmata in his hands – inviting the viewer to look at the painting – brining the viewer into the space o The work is an example of the Holy Conversation: Mary sits on a tall marble throne, holding her Child; at her feet are three musician angels, while at the side, in symmetrical positions, are six saints including St. Francis and John the Baptist o The upper part features a perspective coffered ceiling, flanked with pillars, which are copies of the real ones at the original altar o The frame is still intact – unlike other altarpieces whose frames have been lost o New kind of altarpiece  38. Pala d’Oro restored and embellished in 1345 by Andrea Dandolo for St. Marks, Venice, Gold and Enamel o Old fashioned altarpiece o Space is divided unlike Bellini‟s where the space is unified around the protagonist  39. Antonello da Messina, Enthroned Madonna and Child with Saints for San Cassiano, Oil on Panel, Vienna o Fragment of the original altarpiece o The Madonna and child sit on a very high throne o We have to assume that the scene takes place inside a church o Also oil on panel o The bishop stands in the foreground – like St. Francis in the San Giobbe Altarpiece with his hands out inviting the viewer into the space – to view and pray to the depicted figures o Served as inspiration for the Bellini’s San Giobbe Altarpiece in its enthronement of Mary and a figure welcoming the viewer into the artwork  Venice th o In the 16 century the Venetians did not see themselves as rivals of Florence and Rome, but rather as their superiors (Venice was a Republic at this time like Florence) o Lots of foreign artists traveled to Venice to get their colours o They brought their innovations and techniques with them  Giorgione (ca.1475-1510) o The career of Giorgione was brief – he died from the plague – and most scholars accept only four or five paintings as entirely by his hands o His importance to Venetian painting is critical o He introduced new, enigmatic pastoral themes, known as poesie (or “painted poems”), that were inspired by the contemporary literary revival of ancient pastoral verse o He is significant for his sensuous nude figures, and above all, for his appreciation of nature in his landscape painting o He was also inspired by Leonardo – Vsari – “Giorgione had seen certain works from the hand of Leonardo, which were painted with extraordinary softness, and thrown into powerful relief, as is said, by extreme darkness of the shadows, a manner which pleased him so much the he ever after continued to imitate it..”  40. Giorgione, Castlefranco Altarpiece, ca. 1504-5, oil on panel, Castelfranco, Cathedral o One of Giorgione‟s earliest works completed in his home town (Veneto, northern Italy) for a side chapel altar o 1504-5 – Giorgione had an encounter with Leonardo  Evident in the landscape and the soft manner Giorgione develops o Exact same figure of St. Francis from Bellini’s San Giobbe Altarpiece – just turned on the other side – so obviously the artist studied Bellini very closely o Also similar is the Madonna o But the saints are in different zones – included outside the frame  41. Giorgione, The Tempest, ca. 1506, oil on canvas, Venice o Giorgione‟s most famous work – not religious – the subject is speculated by art historians o Example of a Poesie (Painted Poem) – Roman trend that was renewed in the renaissance o Simply trying to understand what is happening in the picture piques our interest o At the right, a women is seated on the ground, nude except for the end of a long white cloth thrown over her shoulders o Her nudity seems maternal rather than erotic as she nurses the baby by her side o Across the dark, rock-edged spring stands a man wearing the uniform of a German mercenary solider o His head is turned in the direction of the women, but he only appears to have paused for a monument before continuing to turn toward the viewer o X-rays of the painting show that Giorgione altered his composition while he was still at work on it – the solider replaces a second women o Inexplicably, a spring gushes forth between the figures to feed a lake surrounded by substantial houses, and in the far distance a blot of lightning slits the darking sky o The artists attention seems more focused on the landscape and the unruly elements of nature than on the figures  42. Giorgione and Titian (?), Sleeping Venus, ca. 1510 o Mythological figure – Venus (Goddess of Beauty, Love, Fertility – Greek Aphrodite) o Venus lies completely nude – sensual female body – touching herself in a sexual manual o She is out in the public within the landscape – the curves of her body mimics the hills of the landscape o Cupid originally accompanied the Venus but it was later repained over o Titan (in 1507 Giorgione took him on as an assistant) was likely involved in the work as it was left unfinished after Giorgione‟s death – Titan probably painted the landscape and the sky  43. Giorgione, Portrait of a Young Women (Laura), 1506, o The only work of Giorgione‟s that is signed and dated o Laura is set against a laurel  Laura was the lover of Petrarch (poet) o This is said to be a marriage portrait, but her chest is exposed o Velvet red and tender skin – sexualized o Tonal unity of colours organized within the light  44. Giorgione, Portrait of an Old Women, 1505-10, Venice o What the effect of time produces o Beauty and desire can be transformed by time into something else – deformities o Meditation on the effect of time and death o There is a label attached to her written in Roman script – the words are “Col tempo” = with time  45. Titian, Pastoral Concert or Allegory of the Invention of Pastoral Poetry, ca. 1510 o Painting has been attributed to both Titan and Giorgione, although today sch
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