chpater 1 notes for book

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John Coleman

Notes 22:42 BIO 130 Notes Chapter 1 template polymerization- way in which info is copied. two strands of DNA are pulled apart, and each serves as a template for synthesis of a new complementary strand. Transcription: DNA RNA Translation: mRNA proteins Code read out by tRNAs Anticodon on tRNA helps recognize codon on mRNA In all cells, the expression of individual genes is regulated independently of one another. Therefore, the cell adjusts the rate of transcription and translation of different genes independently. Life requires free energy: energy in a physical system that can be converted to do work Universal feature of all cells: All cells require ATP for the synthesis of DNA and RNA. ATP is also the carrier of free energy and helps to drive other chemical reactions. Another universal feature: cells are enclosed by a plasma membrane. It is a selective barrier that enables the cell to concentrate all the nutrients it gathers from its environment. Helps to retain them and synthesize them. The molecules that form the plasma membrane are amphiphilic- one part is hydrophobic ( water-insoluble) and the other is hydrophilic (water-soluble). form bilayer. Hydrophobic tails are made of hydrocarbon polymers. General principle: cells produce molecules whose chemical properties cause them to self-assemble into structures a cell needs. Minimum number of genes for a viable cell in todays environment is 200-300. www.notesolution.comSummary The cell replicates its information by separating the paired DNA strands, and using each as a template for polymerization to make a new DNA strand with a complementary strand of nucleotides. The same strategy of templated polymerization is used to transcribe portions of information from the DNA into RNA. This in turn guides the production of proteins, which are principal catalysts in reactions in the cell, serve as selective transporters in he selective membrane. The function of a specific protein depends on the amino acid sequence, which is specified by the nucleotide sequence of a corresponding DNA Organisms that derive energy directly from the nonliving world fall into two categories: those that harvest the energy of sunlight (phototropic-feeding on sunlight), and those that capture their energy from energy-rich systems of inorganic chemicals in the environment (lithotropic-feeding on rock) Phototropic and lithotropic organisms are PRIMARY energy converters, and are the most plentiful form of life. Organotropic organism (feeding on organic chemicals in living things) depend on primary energy converters. Lithotropic organisms are microscopic, and humans do not usually see them because of where they are found, usually in Earths crust or deep in the ocean. Some use aerobic reactions and some anaerobic. Six elements required to make a cell: H, C, N, S, O, P Procrayotes are classified based on biochemistry and nutritional requirements. They have two groups: bacteria and archaea. Archaea are found in inhabiting environments such as ocean depths, and bogs. In appearance, they are NOT easily distinguished from bacteria. But at a molecular level, archaea resemble eucaryotes in the machinery used for handling gene info (replication..etc) but resemble bacteria more closely in the way of metabolism and energy conversion. New Genes Are Generated From Pre-Existing Genes
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