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Regina Hoschele

Introduction Invoking the Muse Creation MythsClassical MythologyGreco Roman antiquity th4century BC saw the expansion of the Greek empire Alexander the Great o The Hellenistic Age Greek cultural influence and power at its zenith and ended with theEnded with the Roman Empire Beginning of the Imperial Age Augustus What is a MythMythos vs Logos o Mythos Word speech conversation tale story narrative can be true or false o Logos Word speech meaning argument reason rationality associated with trueOrally transmitted through decades and have no specific authorsAll myths have a function But they arent written to be applied to a particular context fable Rather they are made and then are appliedThey are concerned with general phenomena something that people want to know eg origin of the cosmos They are told about family Gods mortals origin of the cosmos heroes animals and all explain the worldThere are many different versions of the same myth Versions told today may be the true version They can change depending on the author eg an author that reveres Apollo might praise Apollo more in his storySexuality is very embraced Inventing the GodsHomer and Hesiods works were one of the first things that were written downTheogony the birth of the gods comes from theos gods and gony origin The Twelve OlympiansCalled Olympians because they were told to be living on Mount Olympus o The mountain is a real physical place the tallest mountain in Greece o Sort of like a heaven The MusesThe tales of the Muses have influenced countless artThey are the daughters of Mnemosyne personified memory o They are responsible for remembering performance art poetry etc Homers IliadThe Iliad is centered around the anger of Achilles o Agamemnon takes Achilles slave girl Briseis insulting Achilles as a hero not as a lover Achilles withdraws from the battle and the Greeks being to lose He later returns because of Patroklos o Importance of honourAt the beginning there is an introduction of all the Greek heroes and their ships the Catalogue of Ships Hesiods Heliconian MusesHis book begins with the MusesHesiods poetic investiture how he became a poet o He is tending to his sheep at Mount Helikon and the Muses come to him They insult him saying he is only concerned with food and the lowly things of life Then they give him the power of telling the very beginning of everythingHymn to the Muses o Hymn Song of praise to gods not humans They were attached to a book to introduce it and tell what will happen in itRevival of classical literature in works by authors who call upon the Muses in their works o John Miltons Paradise LostSing Heavenly MuseThat Shepherd refers back to Hesiod o Walt Witmans Song of the Exposition from Leaves of GrassCome Muse Migrate from Greece and IoniaBringing the Muses from Greece to America forget Europe American is betterZeusthe Succession Myth Zeusthe Human Race Prometheusthe Origins of HumankindBeginningsThe Theogony begins with the creation of the cosmos Followed by genealogies and then succession how Zeus came to be and how the world was createdFocus on familiesone God sleeps with siblings has children children kills father etc o Personifications of phenomena Eg Night is a goddessTheogony moves from the undefined to the increasingly definedThere was nothing but Chaos It starts with chaos a big gaping emptiness of nothing o Then something came from the nothing Gaia Gaia is earth defines space o Then comes Eros the power of new generation procreationNot the cupid we normally think of That is from another storyFour primordial beings o Chaos yawning emptinessEngenders ErebosNight from which come AitherHemera beginning of time o Gaia terra firma first defined space unshakeable foundationWithout consort has Uranus Mountains and nymphs and PontusWith Uranus has 12 Titans 3 Cyclopes and 3 HecatonchiresWith Tartarus has Typhoeus o Tartarus below earth o Eros productive power later becomes subordinate to Aphrodite The Castration of UranusThis story symbolizes the male vs female conflict o Female provides change Gaia is always in favour of the younger overthrowing the olderUranus imprisons Gaias youngest children in Tartarus She is angry and asks her sons to castrate him with a sickle Only Kronos the youngest and most ambitious Titan is willing He castrates him and casts the severed genitals into the sea o Aphrodite rises out of the foam created by Uranus genitalsAnadyomene or Rising out of the water o Other various texts tell Aphrodite as Zeus daughter and Eros motherUranus blood falls to the Earth and brings forth the Giants the Erinyes the furies and the Meliae ashtree nymphs KronosKronos is afraid of being overthrown by his children so he eats them Rheia is the mother and she asks Kronos parents Uranus and Gaia for help o Gaia helps her because she always supports the younger generation She takes Rheia away where she gives birth to Zeus who is hidden in the earthThe Omphalos meaning the Navel of the Earth at Delphi is the stone that Kronos swallowed o Rheia gives Kronos a rock wrapped in baby cloth which he swallosZeus sets the cyclopes free and they create the thunderbolt for him He then becomes the King of the immortals and mortalsUnlike Kronos and Uranus before him he is able to remain in power because he is smart Two important goddesses who pose a threat to Zeus o Styx Has powerful children victory power force She is one of the first to join Zeus in his battle against the Titans o Hecate Goddess of boundaries and associated with the Night and the Moon If she has a legitimate offspring he could overpower Zeus Zeus gains her supportHecates who supports Zeus story comes right before Zeus and his ascension and right after the story of Prometheus who revolts against Zeus o Hesiods ordering makes sense and is structured Greek and Hittite Succession MythThere are many parallels and similarities between the Greek and Hittite succession myths Greek myths were somehow influenced by NearEastern mythologySimilarities o Heaven rules as king AnuUranus o KumarbiKronos rises against him and castrates him o KumarbiKronos swallows what is a threat to him but cant hold what he has swallowed o KumarbiKronos is defeated and displaced by the stormgodZeus TitanomachyMachy meaning battleThe previous generation the Titans want to overthrow Zeus so they attack Mount Olympus Zeus hears that the Hecatonchires 100 armed giants will help him so he sets them freeZeus isnt as strong as the Titans but with the Hecatonchires on his side he is able to protects his regime similar to how he frees the Cyclopes o Both these stories frame the binding of PrometheusGigantomachy o Not mentioned in the Hesiod Not to be confused with the Titanomachy PrometheusPrometheus One who plans and does thingsEpimetheus One who does stupid things and realizes it afterwards
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