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Final Exam Study Note

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University of Toronto St. George
Victoria Wohl

Thucydides Pericles Funeral Oration After the first year of the war, Pericles gives this epitaphios logos to honour the dead The qualities that Pericles praises are: 1. Unique Institutions: He says that the Athenian system of government is original and was not copied from another poleis. In fact, he says that it acts as a model to other cities. 2. Democracy: He praises that fact that all Athenians are equal before the law, and that it is merit and not birth that is praised and respected. 3. Law-abiding: Athenians keep to the law in public affairs and deeply respect the law. 4. Openness: They allow foreigners into Athens without worrying about leaking military secrets because they rely not on their secret military weapons to win battles but their courage and loyalty. 5. Courage: The Spartans have to be trained their whole lives to be courageous, Athenians are naturally courageous. The Spartans have to bring all of their allies to battle, Athens brings itself. 6. Moderation: Athenians are moderate. They do not do anything in excess. 7. Rational: They think their actions through before deciding. 8. Freedom: All men are in charge of themselves. Think about Pericles purpose: justify fighting for Athens, an inheritance, empire Hesiod Theogony First Generation Gaia (Earth) and Ouranos (Heaven) have the Titans and Kronos Ouranos despised his children and hid them away in a cavern of the Earth Gaia plots with Kronos and they castrate Ouranos, throw his genitals into the ocean, and Aphrodite is born Second Generation Kronos and Rhea (his sister) have the Olympians Kronos was afraid his children would take his power (like he did to his father) so as they are born he eats them When Zeus is born, Rhea gives Kronos a rock to swallow and hides Zeus on a mountain to be raised When Zeus reaches adulthood he returns to Olympia and forces his father to regurgitate his siblings Zeus banishes his father and takes his place as the ruler of the gods Third Generation Zeus and his siblings fight and defeat the Titans Prometheus Member of the generation of Titans, a civilization hero A divine hero who gives humans the means of civilized existence When Zeus comes to power, Prometheus decides to test the new king The Gods and mortals were going to come together for a feast, so Prometheus decides to try and trick Zeus by sacrificing an ox and taking the good parts and wrapping them in a hide so that they look like the bad parts He then takes the bad parts and wraps them in a layer of fat so that they look like the good bits He tells Zeus to choose which ever one he wants and he chooses the bad bits This is the origin myth of sacrifice: humans would now kill the animal, eat the god bits, and burn the bad bits in smoke up to the gods Zeus was mad and hides fire (means of survival) from humans but Prometheus steals it back Zeus is angered again and punishes humans by creating woman This story shows the weakness of humans: Sacrifice (you need food to survive), fire (our means of livelihood), and woman (we must procreate, and procreation as this poem shows us I a source of conflict) Sophocles Oedipus the King Meden agan: nothing in excess Gnothi seauton: know thyself Laius is the king of Thebes and marries Jocasta, an oracle tells him that his son will kill him so he doesnt have sex with his wife But one night he does and they have a baby They expose the baby to die but a shepherd finds him and gives him to the childless king/queen of Corinth, Polybus and Merope Oedipus grows up and finds out hes adopted He goes to the Delphic oracle to find out if this is true The oracle tells him that he will kill his father and marry his mother Oedipus, thinking this means Polybus and Merope, leaves Corinth and goes to Thebes On the way to Thebes an old man strikes him with a whip and he kills him A sphinx has been harassing the Thebans but Oedipus manages to solve her riddle , which causes her to jump off a cliff The Thebans are so happy that they make Oedipus king (because their king Laius is missing) He thus marries queen Jocasta and they have four children A plague breaks out in Thebes Teiresias, the blind doctor, tells Oedipus that he has killed his father and married his mother We find out that Jocasta exposed her child with Laius and that Laius was slaughtered at the place where three roads meet right before Oedipus came to Thebes A messenger reports Polybus death (causing Oedipus to feel relieved because he thinks it means he didnt kill his father) but the messenger then reveals that he brought Oedipus to Polybus, having received the baby from a shepherd (the same shepherd was already summoned to confirm whether only one person was killed or not The shepherd confirms that he received the child from Jocasta and that the baby was the child of Jocasta and Laius The play highlights the difference between having perfect/complete knowledge and having imperfect and incomplete knowledge Oedipus is a tragic character because although hes human, he doesnt accept those limits He pursues complete knowledge, and the result is tragic; he was happier with incomplete knowledge What if people were gods and could know absolutely everything? What if the gods really were able to be wrong? Euripides The Bacchants Dionysus is the son of Semele, daughter of King Cadmus, and Zeus God of wine, makes us forget ourselves, who we are, moderation The state of divine madness is the essence of Dionysiac worship Forget yourself, forget your limits, go wild Ecstasy and enthusiasm Pentheus and the Stranger represent different aspects of Greek religion and morality
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