EAS241 Midterm Review.docx

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East Asian Studies
Vincent Shen

Philosopher/Philosophy Notes Confucius (Classical Confucianism) - filial piety: a junzi (superior man) works on the beginning/root (filial piety and brotherly love ), and this allows the Way to rise. o reciprocity of love as the internal reason for filial piety (eg. mourn parents for three years) o social function as the external reason for filial piety (eg. the filial and fraternal don’t offend superiors, and thus will not create disorder) - ren (humanness or humanity): the self-aware interconnectedness with and responsiveness to many others, derived from li (rites, rituals, proprieties, and decorum) o from ren comes yi (righteousness), the respect for and proper actions to others o yi allows for the establishment of harmony, like the way of ancient kings o ren  yi  li - ren also extended by two golden rules (“principle of applying a measuring square”): negative golden rule (shu): don’t impose on others what you yourself don’t want, positive golden rule (cheng): a man of humanity wishing to establishing himself also establishes others; wish to be self-prominent also helps others to be prominent o shu can extend from reciprocity to universalizability - “doing for nothing”: one does what one ought to do, simply b/c it’s morally right to do it; value of doing things is in doing itself, not in the external results - Virtue ethics: excellence of abilities (wisdom as excellence of human intellect, ren as excellence of human feeling, bravery as excellence of human will) and harmonization of relationship (good relation with others by 5 virtues of earnestness, liberality, truthfulness, diligence, and generosity) - governing by li and virtue: leading them by virtue and regulating them by li, instead of leading them by political power and regulating them by law and punishment Zisi (Classical Confucianism) - human nature comes from mandate, which comes from Heaven. Dao starts from human feeling which is born from human nature. Heaven  Mandate  Human nature  human feeling  Dao - humanity is born wihitn human being, whereas rightness is born from the Way (interior ren vs exterior yi) o Way = the following of human nature - 5 virtuous actions: ren, yi, li, zhi, sheng; all formed within is virtuous and without is just action, except for sheng which is both virtuous action). sysnthesis of the first four = excellence, way of human; synthesis of all = Virtue, way of Heaven - Centrality vs sincerity: Ultimate Reality vs True Reality, sincerity  enlightenment  human nature Mencius (Classical Confucianism) - humans all have “four beginnings”: feeling of commiseration, shame and dislike, respect and reverence. right and wrong, all respectively unfold into humanness, righteousness, propriety and wisdom - the mind cannot bear to see the suffering of others; human nature is originally good, if don’t have the four beginnings, they are not human but animals. - know Heaven by unfolding own human nature, by unfolding sincerely his xin (mind/heart/feeling) to its utmost degree - fulfillment of human nature through sincerity, through inborn ability and inborn knowledge, and through extension and self-reflection - in politics: o distinction b/w yi and li: yi is profiting for the common good of public interest and li is profit for one’s own o ruling by virtue (yi), rather than by force (li); ppl submit willingly vs. unwillingly (priority of ppl over ruler) Xun Zi (Classical Confucianism) - human beings have ability to discern right from wrong: “discernment”, in discourse it is called “argumentation”, and good attitudes in argumentation by humane heart 仁心, learning heart 學心, and impartial heart 公心 - Dao is the way of judging right or wrong, includes classes (類), unity (統), and division (分) - in order to discern right from wrong, need to keep mind in “greatly pure and enlightened” state (大清明) by making mind “empty, unified, and still” (虛一而靜) o empty: what is stored in mind does not hinder reception of new impressions o unified: when knowing of one thing does not hinder the knowing of another (awareness of differences in things while knowing the diversity of things) o still:
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