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Study Guide

FOR400Y1- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 45 pages long!)


Department
Forestry
Course Code
FOR400Y1
Professor
Ning Yan
Study Guide
Final

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UTSG
FOR400Y1
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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FOR400Y - Lecture 1: Developing Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Production Systems: The
Role of Adaptive Management (Tat Smith)
Sept 18, 2017
Outline:
- Why consider developing sources of forest bioenergy?
- How is forest management expected to evolve to accommodate long-term increased use
of wood for energy?
- Changes over time?
- What biomass harvesting and/or procurement guidelines have been developed?
- All management activities have to be in context of sustainability
- What is the potential role for certification and other non-governmental sustainability
programs?
Importance of Adaptive Forest Management and certification systems
Why Forest Bioenergy?
- Climate is changing
- Metrics/drivers for climate change showing dangerous trends
- Atmospheric CO2
- Changing pH of water
- Consequences for shellfish, reefs, coral
- Snow cover decreasing
- Arctic ice decreasing
- Upper ocean heat content increasing
- Sea level rises
- Changing our lifestyle to pull trends back is fundamental to trying to change society so
that footprint and net emissions is less
- 4th assessment report
- Mitigation technologies include, afforestation, reforestation, forest management,
reduced deforestation, harvest wood product management, use of forestry
products for bioenergy
- Having carbon stored in harvested wood products
- LCA (life-cycle assessment)
- Compares things with reference systems (i.e. using coal, natural gas, oil)
- LCA shows largest mitigation benefit derived when manage forests sustainably
- Grow forest until some maturity, harvest, then get carbon storage
- If just leave forest indefinitely, the carbon they store will be lost as they
decompose
- Financial incentives to increase use of production systems important
- In some cases don’t have viable business
- This is why Europeans in particular are having subsidies to bring wood pellets
from North America to offset their carbon use
-
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In the long term, sustainable forest management strategies aimed at maintaining or increasing
forest carbon stocks, while producing a sustained yield of timber, fibre, or energy from the
forest, will generate the largest sustained mitigation benefit
- How long is “long term”?
We need a global 50% CO2 cut by 2050
- Ontario has done better:
- We’ve gotten off coal, and use wind energy a lot more
Global Bioenergy Perspectives
- Total amount of bioenergy consumed by Canada is around 10-15 EJ/year
- (coal, oil, biomass)
- To get CO2 down, need bioenergy systems that are 80-150 EJ/year
- Would need much larger bioenergy production systems
- If will produce biomass from agricultural and forestry systems, how much will we have to
increase the productivity of these systems?
- Current production of other biomass
- Have to triple of production of forest products for energy
National comparison: Biomass share
- Talking about doing it across multiple countries
- Finland and Sweden highest production
- If want serious increase in forestry contribution to energy will need huge changes in
management
Wood pellet trade flow from US to EU in 2010
Greenpeace
- Burning trees for energy puts Canadian forests and climate at risk:
Large-scale harvesting of wood for electricity
- At industrial scale, what are the impacts
- In all these production systems, probably some scale of sustainable production, but if we
ramp up industry, may be problems
Are any of these forest bioenergy production systems sustainable?
- Using thinnings
- Logging slash from final harvest
- Whole-tree material at roadside
- Hybrid poplar
- Carefully placing high production systems in different locations
- Increase intensity of management on a few limited sites
Is whole-tree harvesting at landscape-scales sustainable
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