HIS103Y1- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 66 pages long!)

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HIS103Y1
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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HIS103Y LECTURE 1 NOTES September 11, 2017
HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
States are a historical idea
State system offer organized system of IR
EX: UN facilitates relations between states on their behalf
Sovereign=no higher authority
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
o Involves economics, trade between countries
o Ideas, cultures, food
WHY DO STATES GO TO WAR? WHY DO THEY NOT GO TO WAR?
A historian’s job is to look for change and consistency
War is a conscious decision of states
“War is the continuation of politics by other meana” –Carl von Clausewitz
What is a strategy?
o The co-ordination of means with end you want> ie: what you want to achieve
o Strategies require adaption; strategic thinking: What to do if plan A doesn’t work
o “No battle plan survives contact with the enemy Helmeth von Molkte the
Elder (Prussian general)
o “In preparing for battles, plans are useless, planning is indispensable”-
Eisenhower
o One must realize that there are several different outcomes to a situation and a
strategist must look at both
o EG: Eisenhower wrote a failure letter in case the D day attack did not go as
planned
o A plan may fail because they do not consider the enemy’s strategy
o Strategy is about a.) choice b.) option
o In terms of IR, one must also think of geography
o E.G: How a small island such as Britain can conquer so much land and become
one of the world’s greatest powers
o How DID Britain have all the money to pay for so many wars?
TYPES OF WARS
Wars of Religion (Crusades, Catholic vs Protestant)
Wars of Glory (Louis XIV directing the crossing of the Rhine)
War of Empire (Death of General Wolfe)
Wars of Revolution (George Washington; American Civil War)
Civilians as targets
o war is a tool statesmen consider as an option
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HIS103Y1 Lecture 2 September 18th,2017
Seven Years War Part One
Seven Years War lasted from 1756-1763
Involved the Great Powers of Prussia, Austria, Britain, Spain, France and their colonies
The war isn’t about glory, hierarchy, religion but rather territory (in this case, the region
west of the 13 colonies)
Ohio River Valley
Borders between Louisiana and 13 colonies
Ongoing conflict between British and French colonies over disputed land
However, the land was traditionally Native
The Iroquois confederacy held power in the area
The British underestimated the power
Why might one want to fight over the Ohio River Valley?
Linked settlements to Canada in France’s situation
The british feared encirclement
They wanted to expand Westward
See it as a source for raw materials, therefore, increasing Britain’s wealth
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Document Summary

History of international relations: states are a historical idea, state system offer organized system of ir, ex: un facilitates relations between states on their behalf, sovereign=no higher authority, international relations, involves economics, trade between countries, ideas, cultures, food. Elder (prussian general: in preparing for battles, plans are useless, planning is indispensable - Types of wars: wars of religion (crusades, catholic vs protestant, wars of glory (louis xiv directing the crossing of the rhine, war of empire (death of general wolfe, wars of revolution (george washington; american civil war) Civilians as targets: war is a tool statesmen consider as an option. Seven years war part one: seven years war lasted from 1756-1763. Involved the great powers of prussia, austria, britain, spain, france and their colonies: the war isn"t about glory, hierarchy, religion but rather territory (in this case, the region west of the 13 colonies)

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