HIS377H1 Study Guide - Che Guevara, Mobutu Sese Seko, João Goulart
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March 6, 2014
Building the “Ranks of the Free”: The Global Cold War
−We will look at this idea of “global cold war”
−University swelled during the Cold War period – GI Bill
−most opinionated in American History
−This is the generation that will be protesting against global American policy
−Rise of Soviet communism and rapid decolonization of the Third world
−Cold War becomes global
•Introduction: Kennedy and the “ranks of the free”
•Kennedy speaks directly to the Third World
•Trying to convince these new nations to become strong content nations of the West or of the “ranks
of the free”
•Modernization as Ideology (and foreign Relations)
•Modernization: range of approaches and practices
•Belief in technological and economic progress which will lead to stable social and economical
•Important concept from the Kennedy administration
•A lot of Cold War intellectuals will put a great effort to encompass the concept of Americanism
•How do we come up with a concept that is enough to rival Communism
•US until the 1960s – totally racist
•Eisenhower on record: Everyone in the world is watching the US and its domestic racial
•How can you expect them to follow us
•Communism appears to have a plan
•If you follow Leninism you build socialism in one country, and then this expands to the
proletariat and expands to countries around
•US doesn't really have a plan
•Not good for Third World - Part of Western economic success is based on slavery and taking
advantage of colonies.
•Kennedy administration finds intellectuals and asks them what to do?
•1957 Book: Massive foreign aid was the best way to go for the US.
•You can help countries get to the point you need them at, you don't have to wait anymore.
•Stages of Economic Growth – Rostow
•1. Traditional Society
•2. Preconditions for take-off
•4. Drive to Maturity
•5. High-mass consumption: the majority of society has its basic needs taken care of
•The most stable state.
•Rostow: Communism = disease of the transition
•The point where countries could fall to Communism was number 3 – the take-off.
•“It is in such a setting of economic and political confusion that communist conspiracy is
•Implications: if number three is the stage where Communism can thrive, then that's the stage
where they needed to intervene.
•They believed that progress was linear.
•In some ways it gives academic and intellectual justification to American ideas.
•If you are Kennedy:
•The appeal on Rostow's theory is in terms of technology
•American technological capabilities – skills transfer – will influence the Third World
•And then we can enter politically
•Provide technical assistance in the Third World
•The idea is to mobilize the best and brightest of American youth and place them somewhere
in the Third World so they can share their knowledge.
•It fits very nicely with modernization – because you actually go physically and share
•It helps to have exemplars and makes America look wonderful
•People volunteered because they believed in the mission
•People believes in helping other people in the developing world
•In many communities people thought that peace corps volunteers might be spies
•Many Americans going to the Third World started doubting America.
•“The Ugly American:”
•He helps the Vietnamese individually
•Kennedy really liked that book
•1961: Ugly American started to be used for aggressive action
•Alliance for progress:
•Kennedy said that Latin America was the most dangerous nation in the world
•The rich are getting richer and poor are getting poorer.
•Kennedy administration considered poverty to be pre-condition for Communism, or worse
•Castro is not sitting quietly in Cuba, but actively encouraging other Latin American
countries to be against America.
•He violates the Monroe Doctrine
•As a Communist leader in Latin America – he does not answer to anybody, or worse he
could answer to Moscow.
•We know now that there were many tensions between Moscow and Havana.
•Alliance for Progress: Classic Modernization theory: we start giving these countries money so
they do not ally with Castro
•In return for US aid Kennedy said that you have to distribute this money in a more equitable
•Launched it in Uruguay: everybody is invited except for Cuba
•Rising standard of living
•2 dollars out of every 100 made it to the poorest population
Building the ranks of the free : the global cold war. We will look at this idea of global cold war . University swelled during the cold war period gi bill. Most educated most opinionated in american history. This is the generation that will be protesting against global american policy. Rise of soviet communism and rapid decolonization of the third world. Introduction: kennedy and the ranks of the free : kennedy speaks directly to the third world. Important concept from the kennedy administration: a lot of cold war intellectuals will put a great effort to encompass the concept of americanism, how do we come up with a concept that is enough to rival communism. Problem: us until the 1960s totally racist. Eisenhower on record: everyone in the world is watching the us and its domestic racial problem: how can you expect them to follow us, communism appears to have a plan.