[HIS109Y1] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 27 pages long Study Guide!

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Published on 1 Dec 2016
School
UTSG
Department
History
Course
HIS109Y1
UTSG
HIS109Y1
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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(Lecture 2)Feudalism
Synopsis
Fief
(estate of land).
Comitatus
(men of military service).
Vassal
(landowner).
Feudalism can be traced back to Roman Imperialism.
Where patrons did favors for the commoners and vice versa (though the commoners
always contributed more).
Property was distributed by a landowner and in return, peasants would tend to them for
their needs and those of the rich, whilst knights provided protection.
It was necessary to rely on the personal allegiances and connections in your locality.
Feudalism was a response to the destruction of central gov't, providing organization,
protection, and a settlement for dispute.
Operated in Europe between the time of Charlemagne and the Magna Carta.
Technology's Influence
Intervention of technology initiated feudalism.
And drove European civilization as a whole.
Ex. Tribes of the far East brought with them stirrups, enabling the ability to
ride horses and carry arms (swords).
They in turn could instantly defeat any foot soldier.
Yet, horses were expensive, to keep, feed, and train and equally
we ourselves would have to train in swordsmanship.
With the collapse of the Roman Empire came the collapse of coinage for some time, re-
initiating bartering.
And as Land was readily available and incredibly cheap, Warrior chieftains assigned
their knights to property, keeping in line with an obligation.
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This obligation being that "I will give you this land if in return you stand and
fight for me."
This eventually broke down an an obligation is not a guarantee.
Who's to say that the people granted military power, the right to judge, to
own land, etc... would then in turn obey the king.
At this point, the king has basically given away any and all power he
had over his people.
And this is exactly what occurred with the successors of
Charles I.
Consider also that Feudalism was a consequence of opposing a series of rules and
regulations.
The Three Estates
Europe can and was divided into essentially 3 estates.
1. The Clergy
Privileged, living a life of leisure whilst often controlling land.
Anyone could become a priest bearing mind that they were literate.
Parish priests however, often came from a class that they served.
2. The Nobility
Privileged, yet defined by birth and function.
To be a knight one would have to spend years of rigorous training
beginning in their youth.
3. The Peasants
Work dedicated to the first two estates.
In return, the clergy performed religious ceremonies and the nobility
owned the land.
Meanwhile, the peasants worked the land, produced food, and
eventually sold any surplus if possible.
90-95% of the pop.
The parish priests often came from a class that they served.
Monks and nuns were those desiring to retire from their lives, and devote themselves to
God.
They were community assets, collectively praying for the people of villages.
And in turn, inspired people to set aside hefty amounts of wealth in their wills
for the monasteries.
These monasteries gradually became full of people with no religious
intent. Instead, it was just people of poverty looking for an easy,
comfortable life, same as those of the other estates.
The Downfall of Feudalism
By 1100, a surplus of food, better hygiene, etc... brought greater wealth than necessary.
This meant an increase in pop., especially amongst the rich.
And so towns uprooted from feudal villages, creating a place to barter with
money, have institutions, and denounce feudalism gradually.
Prior in 1095, Pope Urban II advocated to seize the Holy Land.
To take the sea routes to the Middle East, the trading routes to the largest and
richest cities.
Thus, the crusades was not a religious act but one of colonialism.
In short, the rise of towns essentially destroyed feudalism!
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Document Summary

Feudalism can be traced back to roman imperialism. Where patrons did favors for the commoners and vice versa (though the commoners always contributed more). Property was distributed by a landowner and in return, peasants would tend to them for their needs and those of the rich, whilst knights provided protection. It was necessary to rely on the personal allegiances and connections in your locality. Feudalism was a response to the destruction of central gov"t, providing organization, protection, and a settlement for dispute. Operated in europe between the time of charlemagne and the magna carta. Tribes of the far east brought with them stirrups, enabling the ability to ride horses and carry arms (swords). They in turn could instantly defeat any foot soldier. Yet, horses were expensive, to keep, feed, and train and equally we ourselves would have to train in swordsmanship. With the collapse of the roman empire came the collapse of coinage for some time, re- initiating bartering.

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