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University of Toronto St. George
Nicholas Terpstra

HIS243 Exam Review Notes th th Social Structures in EME (Lectures sept.16 - sept. 28 )  In EME cities were vry crowded o Little sanitation and social life  Smell cities before you could see them  Piles of human waste on streets, rules to how high they could be  1348- Black Death/ Bubonic Plague o 35% o 50% o 75% o Of pop death o Said to be fleas on rats but not 100% sure o Florence at time of BD had 140,000 inhabitants by end it had lost 2/3 of its pop  Struggles through whole century o London had 60,000- 70  Goes down half  Families collapse o In diff parts of Europe plagues reoccur every decade  Constant population change o In 1590s and 1630s new plagues  70 million before death, 50 million after  Takes 100 years to recover o 14 or 15% of world population dies o 1650- 75 million o Most population lived at mediterrainean o Northern population expands rapidly  Before focus on south, now its shifts to the north  Key centers of trade  Before it was Venice, now Antwerp and Amsterdam  Very few Europeans lived in cities o 10% o Europe is very rural  However by end of period all growth is now in the cities o North fastest o All pop growth comes from people moving in o Dangerous place to live  Theft, plagues as cty is unhealthy  Most cities cannot generate growth internally  Come in die, come in die o Young ppl (teens early 20s) as they were most mobile  Cities have young pop  Women tend to move more than men  Not like NA farms, most people continued to work if you were farming o Lived in villages, and work plots in diff places around villages  In villages, the church, may have more than one plot  Always traveling to diff plots o Rural life marginal bc constantly growing pop but not enough land, therefore you have to leave o Low seed growth 1 to 3 o Always right on margin of starvation or in starvation bc every year crop failure, drought, flood  Difficult to save things  Farmers cannot take risk bc they need to save o Own diff types of land in diff ways  Free hold- owned property (bought, inherited)  Tenants- land is owned by person in manor house, and they are persons tenants  Payments in crops, labor  Italy- 16 century share cropping- have some land by landlord (land) and you divide labor and share  Davante is that there is no need for capital or seed, livestock o All needed is muscle o The landlord shares the pain with you o Spread rapidly bc works for both parties o Any many people cannot afford capital it takes o As BD rises ppl desperate for land o 1350- good  After drops bc no workers, prices fall, wages rise o 1450- expand again as well as agric o More use of industrial crops- hemp, flax, mulberries  Silk worms eat mulberry leaves, and thus development of silk  Any areas that is going to expand needs trees for silk worms  Crisis of not enough food o After 1560s new plague of starving ppl o At this point food could not be shipped far (spoil) o Indus crops could be shipped but not done o Much of ppls diet is vegetable due to fact it is local o By 16 century growing grains and exporting it o Italy looks to Baltic and Spain for grain o Cities try to control rural areas as source of food  Pass laws saying cannot sell grain outside of city  Provide premiums for farmers from away to sell food to their town o No meat usually eaten, more eaten before than after o Southern more vegs than Northern  Move directly to cities or shift around before o Not welcome bc another mouth to feed  If famine hits, city council pass law that everyone who is recent has to leave  Sometimes as far as 10 yrs  In 16 century ppl forced out, increase in beggars o Tension between rural and city o City is seen as safe, rural as dangerous Social Structures in EME  Bologna has symbol of two towers  Campanilismo- bell towers o Convents, monasteries o Other towers are family towers  Defense, statement  Towers packed with supplies and during civi war take family and wait inside o When cities start changing, ppl are ordered to bring down their towers  Some are destroyed  Siena- church vs state powers  Antwerp- big cathedral tower o Mostly church  People had string attachment to their cities, even though 10% lived in cities o Saints days, baquets, aerial views of cities put on walls o Homogenous everything jumbled together o We tend to study urban not rural history o Most of euro is rural, therefore cities stand out  Social settlements- o Wealthy and poor live near o Wealthy tend to build houses in the middle of the city o Bologna- rich lived in middle, poor lived on outside of the city  Even poorer ppl lived on the outside of the city walls th  By 15 century relig shrines appearing on outside of city walls  If shrines on inside of walls assumed you were protected internally  Cathedral is where the bishop resides- voice of pope  Civic church is what the civil council pays for, not direct from rome  CITIES LIKE BOLOGNA BUILT THEIR QUARTERS AROUND POLITICS, AND CITY SQUARE WAS WHERE THEY ALL GATHERED TOEGTHER  To hold power must control city square  Usually ppl loyal to the city as well as their quarter  Intense competition among districts o Venice- made up of 60 little islands  Maritime city  Divided into 6th  Each had 6 had diff islands  Each island had own identity, as well as tower  Each considers itself indiv within whole  They had fights for bridges o Bridge battle  Before no rules, or rules of conduct  Eventually become two groups that battke  They fight on bridges  Idea is to get opponent of bridge  RITUAL EXPRESSES DIVISION WITHIN THE CITY o Rituals of solidarity  Head of Venice was doge  Owns boat called Bucentaur th  Every august 15 ritual procession in which Doge gets in bat and everyone else follows in their boats  Doge ―marries‖ the sea  RITUALS OF SOLIDARITY FOCUS ON RELIGION, FOOD  RITUALS FOR DIVISIONS GO ON ATHLETICS  Neighborhood is focus of civic life o As well as social, political, and religious life  Political-  City council is made up of reps from neighborhoods  If wanted to get into city politics had to control neighborhood o Build palace and act as broker o Provide employment, food, services  Arrange marriages, dowries o Sometimes have people fight in you army (if have tower) o Florence-  Medici knew that if wanted to control city had to start locally  Another important banking fam was Bardi  Strozzi was another family  Each build house at core of neighborhood  Poor people moved around, but others did not  Working class area of Florence (Indus side) called Oltrano Life Cycles in EME  Europe at the time seen as family networks, not indiv  EME has highest infant death rate o Great chance of death at birth o 30% of children die before first bday o 30-50 before fifth birthday  Natural causes  Malnutrition  Gastrointestinal diseases  Plagues  Abandonment o In certain cities o May be picked up by ppl o Go into institutional home  Foundling home- first in Florence  Hundreds of babies dropped off each year  Special door to slide baby in  Highest death rate of babies is in foundling home o Unsanitary conditions  Girls who have been raped and have children  Father does not recognize the baby  More girls abandoned than boys  In less wealthy homes, children nursed by mother and raised in family homes  Wealthy homes send children away and have them raised o Wet nursed used o Sent away within weeks  By age six children are put out and meant to become productive member of society o Earn money living and working as family o If in a moderate family may become an apprentice  Baker  Tailor  Cook  Simple tasks and gradual increase into journeyman and broaden tasks  Eventually become master  Father/ Uncle usually makes decision about what to do as skill  Tkes into consideration sklls of child  Father and master sign contract o Sometimes does not stand and masters leave o Poor families may become servants  In EME your job was it, no permanence and could change everyday  42% of male and 32% of women were servnts (1427)  Job seen as stepping stone to other things  When become a servants in a household, you identity becomes connected with that family  Your birth family is not as imp  Temp agencies set up contracts o Paid (maybe) at end, given room and board as well as shoes and clothes o In case of women 3 or 5 years at end of service given dowry for future marriages o When in that household you are their property  Women in many cases are assaulted by men, brother, son, friend o If women body does not belong to her, property of owner husband  Higher ranking familes expand range of networks- applies to male children only o Females of high clas not sent away from family home o Considered imp for parents to send children away to make connections  Sent to relative/ someone trusted to broaden and create networks o Women are brought into network by relation to men  Social kin- o Take model of knship and apply it to social relations  Oath  Formal agreement  Exchange of blood o These people expected to help you when in need o Burials, health care, supply employment  Safety net for family  Need to make sure part of these social groups o Member of groups pays dues for insurance  Poor families senf kids out to earn money, wealthy boys sent to out to other households  Further go up on social scale, less likely women to leave home o Duty as a daughter is to get married/join convent  Dowry  Preserving virginity  Property can be damaged, no access to endanger the property therefore remain close to home  Once married she joins other family, is husband dies they should be able to live on dowry  Higher up on social scale more expensive dowry becomes  Too costly, so some get married while others forced into convents  Higher up on social scale younger daughters get married  The older the women more dowry will be  Men’s marriage age rises, women’s plummets  Women marry early so they can be removed from their family  Men wait linger so they can make something of themselves, see if they can get better offers  Old men and young women married  Enter life as a network not indiv  Upper class women not allowed on streets without protection o To be seen on streets seen as working for a living o Social codes to be able to be on streets without being dishonored  If child is orphaned they enter into father family o If family is unable other networks come into play  Children are an expense, until they enter the labor force  Women’s life cycle poverty diff than men’s o Bc of female extended life o If women dies in a poor family, husband is able to give his children away decreasing poverty  Not same for females o If women remarries children still property for dead husband and his family  New husband not responsible for old children  May be forced to give them up  Communities of widowed women, not usually men  Old age homes more common in north of Europe than south  People at this time still believe in eternal life o Want to have a good death o As opposed to accidental/ bad death  Fall  May lead to hell and purgatory o Frame of mid will determine how you will go  Confident  Thinking bad thoughts  People around you affect this as well o Networks job is to visit members while dying  Job is to give peace of mind  Death will alter (esp. rural area) o Older must die before younger o Transfer of property, unable to marry before gain finance o Living will- have land as long as care for parent o If no family make arrangements with hospital  Diverse people  Pilgrims, orphans, sick, travellers  Get all of property is able to stay in hospital o May work there until sick, then they take over care until death  Some hosp owned by cities, church or as extension to monasteries  Also set up by guilds for own members, kin group  Hospital in Siena o Records of females in institutions far better than those of males  Boy and girl orphanages  With females the home has greater obligation, so need to be aware of what they have (age, property, parents occupation), what husband would want to know  Marry her off  Girls could not be sent away at the age of 18 like boys  Some girls never leave orphanage bc they cant be thrown onto streets  Orphanages would be arrange on status- poor, middle class Renaissance Humanism (Sept. 30 – Oct. 5 ) th  Humanism was not an organized philosophy, set of values  No discipline of sociology or anthropology  Humanist discipline  Biology- natural philosophy  Languages are about human expression, form of RH o Cicero o Livy o Horace o Caesar  Literature o Poetry  History o Politics studied through history  Rhetoric o Ability to speak and transmit ideas, persuasive  Moral philssophy  Grammar  Studia Humanitatis- five disciplines studied in Latin, through the use of ancient texts, basis of humanities o History o Moral phil o Literature o Rhetoric o Grammar  Humanist- inte disciplinary between all of the five forms, study it to become a more learned student so able to inform other people  Five values- o Human dignity- humanity has a privledged place in universe  Created by gd, we must understand what is the divine creation  More people taking credit for their work- signature  More emphasis on the human form  Possibility of being anything you want to be, within reason  Scale of being o Gd o Angels o Man in middle o Animals o Vegetables o To stone- pure matter  Pico- up to you where you are going to go, as before an idea of a fixed place  If you follow demands of oyur body you become an animal, if follow demands of your mind you will become and angel  Way to rise is through self discipline, as well as other way to bring improvements to society o Human experience- valuable as a path to truth  At this time ppl thought human experience was untrustworthy, individual  You had to go beyond human experience to see truth  Radical bc human exp now used as human exp, ppl writing more bibliographies  Feelings more discussed  Phil now written as a dialogue o Braccollini- phil point about life, but uses history as a way to give point, human exp o Alberti- uses experience and humans as a way to bring about his point o Classical languages-  Latin- period of 100 BCE- 200 CE/ AD  Language of discipline and order, so they said  Diff forms of latin  Valla is a partisan of latin  Greek studies begin to emerge by end of 14 century  Latin is pure- Valla  Latin vs Greek as well as Latin vs Vernacular  Latin had discipline and uniformity  Philology  Langauge you use more fundamentally part of the ideas you think o More sophisticated the more learned ideas o Imitate classical learning  Try to write like those who wrote in tht time  Fortune- goes up and down, cannot control it  Virtu- what you can control, what you do about something  Discipline  Manliness- vir (man)  RH deeply mysoginistic learning as well as gendered  Men are disciplined and have self control, women up and down  RH would go hunt down Europe for manuscripts, normally in monasteries  Not organized- codex had three of four diff manuscripts in them  Had to look in every book  Had to know how author wrote to be able to recognize their handwriting o Order and rationality  Saw that Romans had better empire, so they had ot drive to return to old roman society to be able to achieve greatness  They could see the contrast between roman and current society Humanists in Society  Humanists did not do one thing  Bracciolini (1380-1459) o Student in informal study group, started by chancellor of Florence  Read classical manuscripts  Started passion for latin o Became sectratary for Pope o Find key manuscript of the time Quintilian’s Book of the Orator o Becomes chancellor of Florence  If women gets educated as humanist will be a private education o Tutor o Convent (boarding school) o Really depended on what her father was willing to pay/ open for her  Isotta Nogarolla (1418-66) o Education insisted upon by mother o Sister had tutor as well, both write well in Latin  Older sister marries and gives up studies  Isotta decided not to marry, lives within family for rest of her life o Sets herself up as scholar hermit o Writes letters and manuscripts o She cannot have a public life  Cannot fit into society, criticized bc of her sexuality  Called promiscuous, incestuous o WAY HUMANIST WAS JUDGED WAS BY IF ANOTHER RESPONDED TO THEIR LETTERS  People would comment on her letters, but never personally respond  Always a cloud over her head Humanist Education  Quintilian center of the universe o Studia humanitatis o Physical, intellectual education  Healthy mind and body  Wealthy games, indiv sports  Prepare you for life o Residential  Girls and boys separately  Teachers had to be around students all the time, so able to shape mind  Removed from home, put in diff environment o Manners  Della casa  Women will study a reduced form of humanism o More morally oriented curriculum o Religion  These schools become the basis of classical education  Italian Humanism o Develops earliest o Return to classics o Should be educate by classic roman and greek style o Elite o Ad Fontes  Going to the sources  More going to the original bc less room for mistake in translation  Northern Humanism o Christian humanism o Emphasis still on classics o Erasmus- NT into latin th th Printing, Propaganda and Reformation (Oct. 7 - Oct. 12 )  Invention of Printing o Invention o Three things had to develop before  Paper  Ink  Type  Had a block and cut out image in reverse and transfer it to paper, blocks would be wood  You could do many prints off one block of wood  Spreads to Europe 1250-1350, in china and euro for artwork  Later it is seen as way to block print books, but expensive and did not last long (blocks deteriorate)  Decided to use metal, indiv letters  Not trained as a printer, but as a metal worker (Johann Guttenberg)  Metal opens up new problem, ink before had to be water based  But on metal it does not stick, need to find new ink o From ink move on to painting, oil in their paints o Guttenberg is able to reach across Europe to painters and finds oil  Do not have paper, manuscripts either printed on parchment or vellum  Animal skins  In order to get parchment must go out and slaughter sheep so is costly  Chinese invent papyrus, later spreads to euro 12 or 13h century via arabs in spain o Not in great supply bc little demand o Euro papers bthed on other fibers (hemp, linen) o Savings 1/6 cost of previous option o Books and audiences, and printers o Cultural consequnces  Begins in 1450s in Mainz by Guttenberg  1395-1468  Developed thorough movable metal type o How did books spread before hand?  Monks used to write books by hand, monasteries  If monasteries wanted new work, they would have ot find who owned it and ask to borrow so able to copy  Inter library loan took months/ years  Sets the model up for how other books are produced  They took model of uni classroom, prof would sit in front and read text while student copied book  Oral transmission of knowledge  This is what book sellers used to do  Ideas traveled slowly, high illiteracy, costly  Printing revolutionizes this method  Guttenberg produces lots of bibles  In early beginnings of PP needed to have something that was desirable to market o Mostly church texts  Bibles, books of the masses o Magic stories  Knights  Romance o As printing develops and more readership, diff things demanded  Expansion of printing and expansion of schools o More textbooks available  GREATEST SUPPLY IS IN NRTHN ITALY, PARIS, COLOGNE o ALL THESE MAJOR CENTERS EITHER HAVE CHURCH OR UNI WITHIN  Aldus Manutius (on Terms pg)  Cultural effects of printing o Rise of editing, comparative editions  Scholarships on texts  Never knew if text represented the original word of author  Polyglot- take text and put it in diff language (on same page)  People became fascinated with comparing diff meanings of a text  Printing- cultural consequnces- o Comparative scholarship on classical texts o Languages – vernaculars (french, German, Italian, English, etc) o Audiences grow, ideas spread (eg reformation) o Authority= literacy  From oral to literate culture o Censorship th  Henry 8 of England, 1526  Francis I of France, 1521, 1535  Tries to get rid of press  Does not work  Index of prohibited books  1542, 1559  Effort on part of CC to control hearsay, religious dissent  Last till 1960s  Ideas spread to more people, causing movements  Censorship of religious ideas, so truth can remain in religion  Martin Luther o Reformation becomes a mass movement bc of printing o As writing spreads, literacy becomes a form of authority  To be illiterate is to have lost cultural authority  Notion tht authority comes with literacy and reading Renaissance Art (Oct. 12 – Oct. 19 )h  Painting o Naturalism o Linear perspective o Classism o Chiaroscuro o Perspective landscapes o Medieval backgrounds  Duccio- Maestra  Venice- S. Marco Mosiacs  Heavenly space  Lessons in truths of the faith  All falls apart in the renaissance o Ghirolandio  Angel appears to Zacharias in the temple  Linear perspective  Classicism o Roman temple, classical architecture o Meant to accentuate action in the middle o Public space o Departing from original biblical text o Action in a time, in a place in 3D  Naturalism  Depicted naturally  Look like they could walk and talk  Zach giving name John to son  Linear perspective o Landscape o Linear perspective o Aerial perspective  Have to find ways to create perspective  Vanishing point, above most imp part of the painting  Helps our eyes see this as a 3d painting  Colors is front more intense than colors in the background  Bronze and sculpture o Back to bronze o Free standing o Naturalistic/ classical o Contraposto  15 century Florentine who wants to be portrayed as a Roman o Common of the time  Architecture o Classical models o Proportion o Human Scale o Balance o Engineering  Florence Cathedral o Bruneschelli- dome o Florentines want to build biggest church o Want a dome bc the Romans had a dome  Problem was no one could build a dome  B. says he could make a dome  Inside dome and outside dome th th Politics: City State to Duchy (Florence) (Oct 19 - Oct. 28 )  City state- Florence (later turns into Duchy)  Background o Stages of Medici control  15 century- republic th  16 century- duchy o At the core of diff trading relationships, Florence is an international economy  Wool  Trading (buy raw wool, create lots of wool, ship it out)  Banking  Economy is built on skill, not natural resources  Connections, banking  A lot of wealthy families working together, want republic bc power is shared and rotated through many people, nobody has power for a long time  Build on mistrust  Nobody gets their fortune in one thing alone o Stability ha strong currency, Florin  Used around Europe bc it is reliable o 14 century overshadowed by countries on the sealine o Lacked sea port access, determined to gain more terr as well as sea access  Covet pisa bc has a port  Milan conflict as well  Family Visconti  Venice- expands land base o 14 - 15 century constant wars occurring thorougout period  Enemy- Milan  Ally- Venice  Wars very expensive, and they do not use own armies  Causes lots of poli tension o Come up with new taxation system- tax census (door to door) o Two families arise in Florence, fighting over war, tax systems, forced loan  Albizzi- 1433 in power, when Florence get into problem  Blame it on Medici, Cosimo is expelled  Medici- Cosimo (1434-64)  1434- Cosimos allies in power, they call him back o Exiles Albizzi and all his followers o He does not become formal leader o One of wealthiest men in city  He has a lot of allies, clients  Arranges marriages, jobs, loans as long as you support him  Survive bc they manage to connect Medici with other powers  Understands that to stay in power, he cannot have power  Key thing is to keep faction happy (12 other families) o Promoting political careers, marriages  Keep enemies out of circulation  Power sharing  Keep taxes low  Right public profile o Between magnificence and humility  Extensive artistic patronage  Rebuilds local parish (church of San Lorenzo)  Creates public library at St. Marco  A lot of money he puts in, goes to Florentine people  Image of humility, even though ppl know he has magnificence  He does not put himself forward as a poli figure, works indirectly pulling strings  He tries to stop wars Florence is involved in o Proposes alliance to Milan  Peace of Lodi (wont fight in Italy)  1454  Tries to keep taxes low (esp. for supporters) o He gets supporters on tax commisions, and then he puts higher taxes on his enemies o Castellani- 1454  Marries a Strozzi woman, singles him out and ruin him financially  Republic- power is shared widely o Top council, signoria (12 people, live there during time) o Magistracies  Ten of war  Eight of security o Every wto months vote, maybe a little more o Based on getting alot of people involved, but not really trusting any of them  Prevents ppl form gaining pwr o Draw name out of bag, each has own bag, the name picked form council  No public election, to control politics is to control bags  Do this by controlling what goes into bags o Medici aim to cntrl bag  Cosimo got it by fluke, bag pulled out friends of Cs  Make sure this does not happen again  Took 15 yrs to gain complete control of the bag  A lot of their survival was a fluke o Once you have been drawn out of the bag, you cannot go back in right away  But can be in another bag o COSIMO IS NOT REALLY SECURE UNTIL THE 1450s  Medici- Lorenzo (1469-92) o Il Magnifico o Endangers Medici grip on city power o Secures future, by getting family connections to other sources of power outside of Florence o Not a lot of humility but a lot of magnificence o Act as princes, number and size of family villas increase o Goes outside of city and marries roman noblewoman  Part of one of the two key fams in rome  Orsini o Begins reconciling with some families that were exiled by his grandfather o By end no sure of own allies, have signoria declare emergencies and stop all bags  Halting republican, gets supporters and enemies angry o 1478- conspiracy, Piazzi Family  Brother Giuliano killed, after attempt to kill both brothers  Naples on their side, as well as Pope (Piazzi)  Takes place when they go to church for easter  Lorenzo escapes, but gets stab wound  By end of day Medici gets hold of battle  Hang archbishop, Pope gets upset  Real mastermind is king of Naples, gets on boat and goes to court o He says lets make a deal o In end Ferrante supports him o 1494- Lorenzo’s son comes to power  French and Spanish both had claim to throne of Naples  How are they going to handle huge French army?  Piero, attempts to coddle up to French o Offers them towns in Italian territory o Gives away part of Florentine state  Ppl are enraged, Medici are out in 1494  Lorenzo found power source outside of Italy (alliances)  Negotiates with pope to have second son made cardinal o Giovanni o Cardinals elect pope o If want to be in power circle of church you must be a cardinal o Son is 14 when he is made cardinal, others looks down upon it  Pope- o Innocent VII (1484) o Alexander VI (1492) o Julius II (1503) o Pope Leo X (1513)  MEDICI POPE, GETS THEM BACK TO POWER AFTER 1494 o Adrien VI (1522) o Clement VII (1523)  Son of Guiliano (dead brother)  1527- Medici gets kicked out of Florence again  if they did not have people in papacy they would not have returned to power  1530- they are allowed to return  Medici- Duke Cosimo I (1537-74) o Related only through minor branch o Only 17  Able to teach/ train him o Very intelligent o Face opposition immdealtey  Number of exile families attack, Cosimo defeats them o Inherits oligarchical republic, he plays people who want to play him o Turns Florence into absolute state  Absolute power is from ruler  Above law, make it  Constantly negotiating  Propaganda used to buff image o Knows how to share pwr  Consolidate territory  Takes over republic of Siena  Consolidate own pwr/ title  Become Dukes of HRE  Bc of this HREmperor gets to put troops in fortress in his city  Eventually in 1544 pays emperor to get troops to leave o By time of 1550s- 60s tensions with papacy  Decides to be nice to them  Archbishop of Florence who is not allowed in city  Decides he wants to be Grand Duke, Pope can give him title o Wants to be able to give ppl titles (knights)  To have titles ppl covet make him look good  Must create an order of knights  Appoint somebody to the order  Order of Saint Stefano o Crusading order against Muslims  Uses it to reward his friends o Does away with republican system  Now boards, magistrates (he appoints)  Responsible to him  Shifts nature of politics  Term is as long as DC wants o Marries outside of Italy/ Florence  Elena of Toledo  Daughter of King of Spain  Gives him legitimacy o Marriage arrangement with French  Medici queen on French throne  King henry 4 – Maria de Medici  Ferdinando- French Princess o Medici and Florence show how to gain power and then adapt  They should not have survived Politics: Empire (HRE)- (Oct. 28 - Nov. 4 )h  Form no longer exists now, HRE highlights a divergence of expectations vs reality  Now- gvnt focused on power and how exercised  Idea of empire, a gathering of people, federation  HRE- a federation, each citizen identifies with their local empire o Saxon identify with Saxony o Combined diff power territories  100 countries, ruled by a count  50 principalities, ruled by a prince  60 or 70 city states, coinage, justice systems, city councils  2000 imperial knights  LOOSE FEDERATION BINDS PEOPLE TOGETHER  Imperial diet, Parliament of HRE o Meets every two years o No capital of HRE o Meets in three houses, largest 7 electors, principalities, major states, cities  1356 constitution written, Names 7 electors to provide balance within HRE o Four heads of state, 3 Bishops, head of principalities o Meant to be loose federation o HREmperor ALWAYS ELECTED  Possibility emperor could be a foreigner o Henry VIII o Francis I o Charles V, Henry VIII, Francis I all very young men  Cities did not thve much power, structurally weak, it was liked that way  From middle 15 century, Habsburg Austro Hungary always elected o But the Hapsburg elected may nto always have been the son of the previous emperor o Hapsburg succeeded politically by doing as little as possible  No interventionalists, promise nothing  Ambitious, advance family through marriage  Gain territory this way as well  Maximilian marries Mary of Burgundy  Pwrful duchy, wealthy contains the Netherlands  Duke dies with Daughter as Heir o Their son Philip marries Joanna Infanta of Spain o Spain and Italy now family o Their son Charles now Controls the Hapsburg lands  Burgundy, Aragon, Castile, Naples  1519- Maximilian dies, Charles up for election as HRE (he is only 19 at the time)  Charles up for election in HRE, he is 19 o Not a sure thing, gain terr through marriage, adding title of HREmperor create a strong monster o Other electors are afraid o A lot of money changes hands, comes from Papal bank (Fuggers Bank) o Charles wins, but poisioned crown  Constantly at war  Shifting alliances against him  France fears encirlement  Pope, Papal states threatened by Naples  Turks, trying to expand into europe o Charles leading a crusade against the Turks  England (Henry VIII will want a divorce)  Internal conflicts  Revolt of Spanish knights  German princes, politics of reformation  Charles V does not have many allies o Enemies without, within o At war constantly o Works out coalition in his own defense o Does not ally with france, Pope sometimes an ally  What does this mean about power? EME not ready for a single, powerful empire. Does charles even want to create one?  Biggest crisis of his rule o Outbreak of protestant reformation in Germany  Charles a devout Catholic, wants a strong Catholic Empire, may intimidate Pope at times, but believes in church as basis of his legitimacy as a ruler o People want to reform church, but reformation splits the church o ML emerges, a monk in Saxony, protected by the Elector of Saxony o Constitution states one emperor dies, before next one elected, temporary emperor is Elector of Saxony, Luther’s protector  He does not like people messing with ML o Deal made, I vote you- you give my monk a hearing o So many players, cannot get them all in line  Division among Charles ranks, hearing for Luther, orders his works to be suppressed (this does not work) o Sometimes Charles needs support of luther’s supporters, and he must back off  More states adopting Protestantism o 1520, 30, 40s Protestants gain military strength  Form Schmalkaldic league  More and more states adopting Lutheranism o 1540- Majority of electors protestant o 1546- Charles has won over all enemies, league weak  Wipes out protestants in two year o 1548- Diet of Augsburg, CC needs to be reformed, but while council of trent is meeting  Temp solution, all protestant terr will reverse what they have done  Charles had overreached, allies turn on him, he will to strong o 1551- charles defeated, almost captured o 155- Charles gives up, he abdicates the throne  Allows religious toleration  Significant for political power- religion of ruler, now religion of territory, do not like move away  Cities may have catholics and protestants  Prior rulers changed religion to get possession of church assets, grab land an power o Peace of Augsburg- no more expropriation  Make area protestant, lands stay with catholic church o Charles V last HREmperor  Empire split into German Hapsburg (Frederick, Spanish Hapsburg (Philip II))  Philip gets spain and burgundy  Spain becomes more powerful  17 century tensions grows again btwn C and P, 30 years war  Civil war in HRE takes in all of Europe- Danes, Swedes, Dutch, French o Dreadful bloody wars o France emerges victorious from 30 years war o HRE never strong again, spain loses also  Victory in 30 yrs war cements French pwr, diff poli system o End of 30 years war confirms end of loose federation of HRE and ushers in start of new pwrful Nation- State France th th Politics: Nation-State (France)- (Nov.4 - Nov.11 )  Henry VIII- b. 1491, ruled 1509 (18) o England  Francis I- b. 1494, ruled 1515, 1516 o HRE, Spain  France o Dynasty  Valois  1328-1589  Francis I o Came to pwr in time of political instability o Internal, a lot of divion o 15 century- consolidation of French territory o 16 century- first half internal war, second half external 
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