notes on relevant Zophy chapters

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Nicholas Terpstra

Zophy Notes by Theme Theme 1 Conditions of Life in Early Modern EuropeChapter 1 The Best and Worst of Times Between 1300 and 1700 Europe experienced great artistic achievements in the areas of literature art music philosophy politics science and theology Term renaissance coined by art historian Giorgio Vasari to celebrate cultural achievements going on around him that left a legacy for us o Means rebirth o Refers to revived interest in classical JudeoChristian sources o Return to ancient language and literature as a means of individual and societal improvement o Renaissance artists work represented classical and humanist models of the timeAlso a time of challenging ancients o Scientific developments of Copernicus and Galileo challenged old ideas o Machiavelli and Guicciardini revolutionized political thoughtRenaissance was also a period of warfare famine epidemics peasant and artisan revolts poverty ignorance intolerance and economic depressionRelatively few people who consumed the dazzling higher culture of the period were supported by the drudgery of the massesItalian Renaissance brought individualism and helped usher in the modern world birthplace of modern consumer society capitalism and world economyFor some the Renaissance was an era of increasing contacts between East and West trade between Europe the Ottoman empire and even China was possible for the first timeEra featured the rise of the modern territorial state as feudal monarchies in Europe gave way to more bureaucratizes and centralized power structures th Military revolutions allowed Europeans to exploit and dominate the rest of the world until the 20 century The Reformation th Term Reformation created in 19 century used to describe the movement for religious reform o Followed friar Martin Luthers attack on indulgences in early 1500s to the close of the age of warfare in mid1600sWas a discrete historical period as well as a movement for church political and societal reformsEra of Reformation and Renaissance overlap Chapter 2 The Peoples of Europe The PeasantryEurope was thinly populated mostly rural or agriculturalMost people in Renaissance farm families worked the land intensivelyA Culture of Poverty Village Life th Most Europeans in 16 century lived in small farming villages of 500 to 700 people which were connected to selfsufficient agricultural estates called manorsVillages had peasant huts and sheds a miller to grind grain a tavern a blacksmith shop a general store a parish church and the manor house of the principal landowner of the regionSome villages were connected to monasteries or outskirts of a townProsperity varied year to yearIll health was common for adults of all social classesCoarse dark bread wasa peasant staple fruit was too expensive and vegeatables and meat were rareLiving conditions of peasants did not change during renaissance but serfdom was almost completely eradicated and many peasants owned some land The Continuities of Life for Men Women and ChildrenHuge taxes to pay to landownersto use the lords grain mill or to breed livestock inherit fathers tenancy etc paid in harvest and deedsSurvival was the central issue for the peasantry Peasant resentment led to huge revolts all throughout Europe over several centuries Town Dwellersthe Third Estate Small number of commoners lived in walled townsMore affluent members of towns called themselves noble or aristocratic had large share of political power below them were professionals and artisans teachers lawyers merchants etc then below them unskilled laborers servants etcCities were more prosperous than the countrysideTrade towns began to grow by 1500 after the Black Death but towns were still centers for disease and pollutionLarger cities were near major ports or trade routes Daily LifeGoods were made and traded during the day gates locked and curfews enforced at nightTowns were dangerous places at night urban govts were preoccupied with maintaining law and order Urban WomenWomen were denied economic and political power in the townsMen were supreme within families as well govts mirrored this and were paternalisticSocial Tensions Main tensions between rich merchants professionals and illiterate artisans and farmersSocial grievances threatened to become public violence often turned into class warfareIn these times the privileged tended to stick togetherOften tensions erupted within the same class but in different regionsElite family rivalries related to political matters also erupted occasionally in Renaissance Europe The Rise of the Capitalists Capitalismprivate or corporate ownership of capital goods and investment decisionsCrusades influenced the expansion of capitalism and endorsed by the Church as demands for funding the Holy Wars as well as new goods to be traded ie silk and spices grewPort cities grew and became most prosperous places Slave trade grew MuslimsHuge majority of Europeans were Roman Catholic some orthodox Christians near Greece very small minority of Muslims in south of SpainDiversity in religion was not tolerated in many parts of Christian EuropeQueen Isabella of Spain ended religious pluralism Muslims were forced to convert to Christianity or leave part of Spanish Inquisition campaign under control of the Spanish monarchySlaves from Africa and the LevantSmall minority of Africans and Turks from Levant in Europe who served as slavesOttomans fought to gain control of slave market so cost of slaves were rising and demand fell in EuropeNumber of poorly paid workers in most parts of Europe decreased demand for slavery but was essential in prosperity of the New WorldJews Small population often exposed to expulsionsNot permitted to own land so worked as tradespeople for domestics for the most partUsed as scapegoats for various disasters including spreading disease like the Black DeathAlso subject to Spanish Inquisition
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