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Nicholas Terpstra

HISTORY 243F Fall 2011EXAM REVIEW SHEET1Social Structures in Early Modern Europe Cities and neighbourhoodscities are a symbol of civil and religious patriotism You feel strongly about your city because you fell God feels strongly about itthey are usually centralized around churches or shrinescities are also divided politically into quarters and sixths controlled by different familiesPeople are patriotic to their own sections of the city as wellthe city centre which had all kinds of buildings is considered a neutral zoneIf someone wanted to cease control of the city they had to take control of the city squareoVenicedivided into sixths divisions that were seen in religion and sports toothe two main families in Venice were the Castellini and the NiccolottiVenice had vested interests in trade not landthese were often centralized around religiondespite the divisions the city would become unified at times to show solidarity so that God would bless themVenice was a city of cohesion and divisioncohesion the marriage of the Doge to the seaA procession would start at St Marks Square leading to the sea at which point the Doge would throw a ring into the ocean and say I marry youDivision Bridge battles were a regular ritualyoung men from different families would get together to knock each other off of bridges these battles could often become bloody and always put the entire city on edgeoFlorenceBuilt in the ancient Roman periodFollowed the typical grid pattern with two main streets Cardo and Decumanus11731175 walls of Florence built out and population expands12841383 walls stretched out to accommodate growing populationBig population growth between 12841333 population reaches 120000 one of the largest in Europea few decades later Black Death 1348 sweeps through the population and the population stays low until the 1800sHighways develop after walls torn down to sweep out diseaseMedici build two fortresses to intimidate population rather than defend it 1Florence was also a family of cohesion and divisionthe rituals may have been a little differentoBolognaAlso a Roman city with Cardo and DecumanusthSecond walls built in the early 14 centuryHad roughly the same population as Florence which also collapsedBologna had cathedrals and watch towers related to different houses to assert dominancethe taller and larger the tower the more power a family seemed to haveoLoraniumBelgian cityNo grid formation not a Roman cityRural settlement from the Middle AgesCore is more like a city whereas the outer reaches are farmlandthWith religious changes in the 16 century convents are built in the farm land areaBlack Death1348oStarts in Italy and reaches Netherlands in 1349o13 to 12 of the population killedoMost cities take 150 years to recover from itoFlorence Bologna etc take longer because they are unhealthy citiesoThese cities dont see a growth in populationpopulation grows in areas that were previously sparse such as England France and GermanyoPopulation growth comes from migrationoNo natural growth in population due to poor food supplyAgricultural developmento13501450 there was a decline in European land for cultivation and after the plague there were less people to farm the landodiet improves because there are less people to farm the lando14501650 increase in population and the rise of industrial crops such as hemp and mulberries for textiles leads to development of unused landoIncreased industrial development leads to food shortages in 1560s because no one was farming for food and diet declineso1590s there is a famine so people search in the Baltics for food which causes an explosion in tradeoDemographicsoAt first Europe represents 1415 of the worlds populationoBy 1820s 25most people lived in the Mediterranean areaoIn 1600s Northern Europe had 50 of worlds population and by 1650s it was 752oThe culture and economy goes from being heavily Mediterranean to Northern Europeano10 of Europes population lived in cities with at least 5000 people to a cityoThe rest lived in rural areas with a population less than 5000oBy the end of the period people in their late teens to early 20s began moving to cities with a large number of women for better opportunitiesomost people dies youngby age 15 50 of children would have diedo2030 of people die within 3 yearsomost deaths were related to gastricintestinal diseases or complications in the birthing process1 in 5 women die due to birth related causesLifestyleoChildren of upper class citizens were sent to wet nurses to get the women back into fertility as soon as possibleoafter 6 years of age children were sent to schools or apprenticeshipsochildren of lower classes were put to worko42 male and 34 female of servants were children from the working or artisan poolsoThere were 3 levels to skilled craft work baker tailor etc apprentice age 615 journeyman age 15early 20s and master from mid 20s onwardsomost craftsmen wouldnt marry until they became mastersand sometimes that would be a problem because in some parts of Europe you werent considered an adult until marriedohigher status children were sent off to live with other families in order to make connectionsoconnections were built through guilds unions fraternities and confraternities which lasted and supported the member for life and his family after deathoMarriage for women was usually a matter for parental negotiationothe richer and older a girl was the more say a parent had in the marriageomarriages were about wealth property and money othe younger women marry the bettera widow in her 20s can easily get remarries but not when she hits her 30s or 40soIn Northern Europe the marriages are more commonlaw in nature with the property being shared3
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