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HMB202H1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Lymphadenopathy, Portal Vein, Peripheral Membrane Protein

Human Biology
Course Code
Ron Wilson
Study Guide

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Lecture 1: Intro to Health and Disease
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- Etiology means the cause or the nature of the environmental perturbation that leads to disease
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- We don't know where along this timeline this irreversible injury occurs
- Irreversible cell injury always leads to cell death
- Necrosis is a pattern of tissue death
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- Metaplasia is "change in form"
- Dysplasia is "malformation"
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- Timeline from the initial stage where oxygen is depleted...
- the degenerative response
- ATP production decreases (no aerobic metabolism)
- Sodium and water move into cell; Potassium moves out of cell (no ATP to drive the Na+/K+ pumps)
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- One of the main functions of the liver is lipid metabolism, so if oxygen is taken away, lipids accumulate in the
- At this stage the condition is reversible if you bring back oxygen
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- Dual blood supply that merges along the liver sinusoids: from the hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein that
exits through the central vein> the hepatic vein.
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- Liver acinus model: Under normal conditions the perivenous cells in Zone 3 are no different from cells in Zone 1
and 2, though they receive the least amount of oxygen
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- Diaphragm, main muscle of breathing
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- cells affected first, show lipid accumulation
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- Humoral (Antibody)
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- a collection of suppurative exudate that has accumulated in a cavity of the tissue
- granulation: budding capillaries> type III collagen> replaced by type I collagen
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Lecture 2: Infectious Microorganisms
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- In general, cell morphology is a poor predictor of other properties of a prokaryotic cell like physiology, ecology,
or phylogeny.
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- UPPER LIMITS TO CELL SIZE: A large cell size may be a mechanism for storing nutrients. For very large cells,
nutrient uptake eventually limits metabolism to the point that the cell is no longer competitive with smaller
cells: Small cells have a higher surface-to-olue atio “/V: V=/π3; “A=π2. The higher S/V ratio supports a
faster rate of nutrient exchange per unit of cell volume=> smaller cells generally grow faster than larger cells and
a given amount of resources will support a larger population of small cells than of large cells=> larger pool of
mutations within population=> greater evolutionary possibilities
- 0.20 to 2.0 µm in diameter
- 2 to 8 µm in length
- spirilla: spiral (twisted)
- LOWER LIMITS TO CELL SIZE:A structure of 0.1µm diameter or less is of insufficient volume to house the
essential components of a free-living cell and structures of 0.15µm are marginal
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- Some bacterial cells are surrounded by a sugar-dense capsule (looks like a halo)
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- Spirochete: tightly coiled bacteria
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- Filamentous bacteria: can be mm in size
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- (Both diplococci and streptococci cause pulmonary pneumonia)
- The cells of many prokaryote species remain together in clusters after cell division: Streptococci form long
- Sarcinae occur in 3-dimensional cubes
- Staphylococci occur in grape-like clusters
- There is staphylococci but there is no staphylobacilli
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- Staphylo: grape-like structure
- Coccus: spherical
- Secretes heat-resistant enterotoxin (=> refrigerate foods)
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- This bacterium duplicates end-on-end
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- Causes food-borne poisoning from uncooked foods e.g. raw chicken
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- Another bacterium that can come from raw chicken. It is the primary cause of peptic and duodenal ulcers
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- fundamentally the same in functionality as our plasma membranes; similar components
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- contains A LOT of proteins
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- High protein content. Some proteins stabilize the membrane
- Membrane proteins span the entire lipid bilayer
- Peripheral membrane proteins are associated to one leaflet of the membrane. Some of these are lipoproteins.
They typically interact with integral membrane proteins in important cellular processes such as energy
metabolism and transport. Some are glycoproteins which may function as recognition sites, enzymes, or
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- 1. The CM confers little protection from osmotic lysis. Water is weakly polar but sufficiently small to freely pass
the membrane in both directions
- 2. active transport systems
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- How do we keep proteins that act outside the CM from drifting away?
- The cell wall keeps in content and vital proteins--especially for gram -negative bacteria; it also keeps the cell
from bursting under osmotic conditions
- N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid: Mainly 2 sugars making up the peptidoglycan layer
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- It withstands the osmotic pressure caused by the high concentration of dissolved solutes in the cytoplasm
- NAG and NAM are sugars
- Peptidogylcan is a rigid polysaccharide layer responsible for the strength of the cell wall.
- The glycan component is invariant
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- Gly-Gly-Gly-Gly-Gly: cross-linkage in gram+ bacteria
- DAP———D-ALA: peptide bond cross-linkage in gram- bacteria
- lsoze leaes the β-1,4-glycosidic bonds b/w NAG and NAM=>cell wall weakens =>osmotic lysis
- Chains of peptidoglycan are connected by peptide cross-links of AAs and the sugars in the glycan strands are
connected by glycosidic (covalent) bonds. These stabilize the peptidoglycan layer in both the Y and X directions,
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- Tip: Gram-positive has very "positive" (thick) peptidoglycan layer
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- Two membranes!
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