HMB342H1 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Net Present Value

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Published on 9 Feb 2011
School
UTSG
Department
Human Biology
Course
HMB342H1
HMB342H1S Summary, Lecture 1-4 for Midterm
Lecture 1
5D outcomes: death, disease, discomfort, disability, dissatisfaction
Bias: selection, measurement, confounding (related to both cause and effect)
Study Validity: internal, external (generalizability)
Validity = accuracy, truthfulness.
1) Content: includes all dimensions of construct and nothing more
2) Construct: related coherently to other physically unverifiable measures of same phenomena
3) Criterion: can predict directly observable phenomena (e.g. wound).
Reliability = precision, replicability, similarness
Variation: Instrument/Observer; Within individuals/Between individuals
Regression to Mean: when see abnormal result, repeat the test, new result is often closer to normal.
Caused by chance/measurement error. Abnormal result need re-test before abnormality conclusion.
Criteria for Abnormality: statistically unusual, clinically sick, and treatable.
Lecture 2
Gold standard = criterion standard
1
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Document Summary

Bias: selection, measurement, confounding (related to both cause and effect) Validity = accuracy, truthfulness: content: includes all dimensions of construct and nothing more, construct: related coherently to other physically unverifiable measures of same phenomena, criterion: can predict directly observable phenomena (e. g. wound). Regression to mean: when see abnormal result, repeat the test, new result is often closer to normal. Criteria for abnormality: statistically unusual, clinically sick, and treatable. To increase prev: look for symptoms, get referrals, search demography. Discrimination ability: plr/nlr, if >50, then good test. Nomogram: draw straight line from pretest prob to lr to post-test prob. Denominator population: should be specific (all at risk, relevant to question, scope well-described, good sampling method) Prevalence: people already sick, just count sick ones, divide by all at risk. Either point (e. g. jan 31: or period (e. g. 1994-1995). Prevalence advantage: used for diagnostic tests, allocation of resource, identify future hypotheses. Prevalence disadvantage: don"t know cause and effect, which precedes which.