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notes from all lectures for midterm 1

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University of Toronto St. George
Dana Philpott

Lecture ONE: THE HISTORY OF IMMUNOLOGY the black plague thought to be spread by trade routes; worsened by migrations rats had fleas, fleas carried the Yersinia pestis bacteria that caused the plague (cats were seen as evil, which didnt help because you needed cats to get rid of the rats) ::farmers were hit, they cut off food supplies causing starvation ::civic services shut down ::Mongolian Empire collapsed in Central Asia ::peasants were taxed more leading to the peasant revolt in 1371 ::superstitious views dominated, Jews were persecuted ::education and architecture were put on hold survivors had an immunological advantage maybe beneficial mutations the survivors also benefitted from greater resources leading to the Renaissance ::Renaissance could also be attributed to the disillusionment of the church or the collapse of feudalism *immunity: the quality or state of being immune; a condition of being able to resist a particular disease; that which confers protection against disease ::first seen in 2000 BC: The Babylon Epic of Gilgamesh had accounts of pestilence and disease *variolation: inoculating someone with the virus of smallpox to induce the disease IMPORTANT PEOPLE IN THE PROGRESS OF IMMUNOLOGY Person Contribution to Science Thucydides - 430 B.C. - saw that some people were infected with disease, but they survived and werent infected again = immune - didnt know what caused the disease outbreak, while elders believed it was a supernatural force the Gods wanted it he didnt believe the same Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariya Razi (Ar-Razi) - Persian physician and alchemist - died in 930 A.D. - first to use humoralism (disease treatment is based on the imbalance of humours melancholic, choleric, phlegmatic, sanguine which explain why some get sick and others dont) to distinguish one type of disease from another - first to diagnose smallpox versus measles = different diseases are caused by different microorganisms - recognized epidemic force of smallpox - first to describe allergic asthma - first to understand fever is a mechanism for fighting infection Avicenna - Persian philosopher and physician - died in 1037 A.D. - father of modern medicine - wrote The Canon of Medicine IMPORTANT PEOPLE IN THE PROGRESS OF IMMUNOLOGY Person Contribution to Science Avicenna (contd) - ::how to run a clinical trial ::experimental medicine ::evidence-based medicine ::contagious nature of infectious diseases ::acquired immunity Girolamo Fracastoro - suggested contagious particles transmitted diseases even over long distances - wrongly thought immunity to measles conferred immunity to smallpox Lady Mary Wortley Montagu - 1717, learned variolation in Constantinople, had several prisoner and abandoned children inoculated (had smallpox inserted under their skin); when observed none contracted the disease, deemed the procedure safe - she had herself and many other members of the Royal Family inoculated, making it fashionable in Europe Edward Jenner, Sarah Nelmes, James Phipps - noticed milk maids rarely had smallpox - knew smallpox was carried by cows and milk maids had blisters from milking the cows, observed the pox from the blisters werent as virulent as actual small pox - 1796 inoculated James Phipps with material from the milk maid Sarah Nelmes blisters - James Phipps developed a slight fever but nothing more - Phipps was exposed to variolation, no symptoms were observed suggesting he had acquired immunity Charles Chamberlain - Pasteurs assistant - was supposed to inoculate chickens with chicken cholera but didnt and went on vacation - when he came back from vacation, was inoculated the chickens with chicken cholera but they didnt get sick Louis Pasteur - attenuated germ cultures - noticed that something had happened during the vacation in the cultures that made the chicken cholera less virulent - determined that attenuated chicken cholera cultures could induce acquired immunity in chickens to virulent cholera - this discovery was extended to cattle anthrax and rabies Joseph Meister - bit by rabid dog in Germany and was taken to France to get rabies vaccine - the first person to receive the rabies vaccine, was completely cured Robert Koch - implemented postulates for how microorganisms mediate disease 1) microorganism must be found in organisms suffering from the disease, but not in healthy people 2) microorganism must be isolated from a diseased organism and cultured 3) cultured microorganism must cause a disease in healthy organisms when infected with it 4) microorganism must be re-isolated from the diseased host and identified as identical to the original - if all the postulates were met by the microorganism, it was the causal agent observed DTH (delayed hyper-sensitivity) where an animal previously infected with TB is re-infected intra-cutaneously , a local inflammatory reaction marked by necrotic lesions will develop rapidly and heal quickly
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