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Monica Boyd

Chapter 1 11/12/2011 7:09:00 PM - Linguistics: study of how language works – how it’s used, how it’s acquired, how it changes over time, how it’s represented in the brain… - Linguistic Knowledge  knowing a language = being able to speak and be understood by others who know that language  the capacity to produce some sounds (/signs for deaf & mute people) that have a certain meaning and to understand and interpret the signs produced by others  the capacity to understand what linguistic constructions (sounds or signs, words, sentences) are possible in a specific language and what constructions are not  the linguistic knowledge is unconscious knowledge: people speaking a specific language are able to explain what constructions are correct or incorrect in that language, but they are not able to explain why - Arbitrary: the relationship b/w sound/word (form) and its meaning - Creativity – regulated by systematic constraints; innovation can occur within boundaries set by rules, which are integrant part of our knowledge of language  Ex. nouns & verbs in English: o Pull the boat into the beach = beach the boat o Put the wine into the bottle = bottle the wine - Competence  a speaker’s (unconscious) knowledge of what can and can’t be said in their language - Performance  how the speaker actually uses his/her linguistic competence to produce and understand speech - Prescriptive Linguistics  the shoulds and shouldn’ts of language - Descriptive Linguistics  studies and characterizes the actual language of specific groups of people in a range of situations - Characteristics of Grammar  Generality: all languages have a grammar  Parity: all grammars are equal (no good/bad)  Mutability: grammar changes over time  Inaccessibility: grammatical knowledge is unconscious  Universality: all grammars are alike in basic ways - Universal Grammar  Laws that pertain to all human languages - Areas of Linguistics Study: phonetics, phonology, morphology Chapter 2 11/12/2011 7:09:00 PM - The domain of phonetics: inventory & structure of the sounds of speech  Articulatory and acoustic phonetics - The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) - Segments: individual speech sounds - The sound producing system  The air supply: the lungs, the intercostals and the diaphragm  The sound source: the larynx and its anatomical structure o Glottal states  The set of filters: the pharynx, the oral cavity, the nasal cavity (the vocal tract) - Sound classes: based on the phonetic properties they share  Vowels, consonants, and glides - Consonant articulation  The tongue and its structure  Places of articulation o Bilabial o Labiodental o Dental and interdental o Alveolar o Alveopalatal o Palatal o Velar o Uvular o Pharyngeal o Glottal  Voiced and voiceless consonants  Nasal and oral consonants  Manners of articulation o Stop/plosive o Continuant  Fricatives o Affricate o Stridents and sibilants o Liquids: lateral (the two types of English ls) and retroflex liquids o Voiceless liquids - Glides  Palatal and labiovelar glides - Vowels and vowel qualities  Rounded vowels  Nasal vowels  Tense and lax vowels  Diphthongs - Vowel articulation  Height o high o mid o low  Place of articulation in the oral cavity o front o central o back  central vowels 
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