LMP301 2014 MIDTERM 1 NOTES (lectures 1-7).pdf
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Department
Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology
Course
LMP299Y1
Professor
Kenneth Yip
Semester
Winter

Description
  -­‐ epidemiology  is  the  observation  of  the  occurrence  of  disease  in  populations;  pioneered  by  the  efforts  to  control   infectious  diseases   -­‐ some  useful  terms:  prevalence  and  incidence,  endemic  and  epidemic     Inflammation   -­‐ most  infections  produce  inflammation  but  not  all  inflam mation  is  due  to  infection   -­‐ symptoms  include  fever,  chills,  and   leukocytosis  (production  of  WBC  to  fight  off  infections)   -­‐ controlled  with  drugs  even  if  mechanism  of  injury  or  the  antigenic  stimulus  is  not  known   à  may  not  know  definitive  diagnosis  (exact  reas on  why  you  have  inflammation  symptoms),  but  if  you   start   treating  it  with  aspirin  or  steroid  can  reduce  severity  of  disease  (might  not  cure  it,  but  can  treat  it)   -­‐ autoimmune  diseases  =  rejection  of  self  à  immune  system  attacks  own  tissues   à  immune  system  causes  injury  to  normally  functional  cells   à  not  an  infection,  but  can  lead  to  inflammation  (if   inflammation  goes  on  and  damages  cells,  you’ll  have  a  disease  process  going  on)     Vascular   -­‐ vessels  (circulatory  system)   -­‐ atherosclerosis  (deposition  of  fats  in  vessels)  or  arteriosclerosis  (hardening  of  arteries)  are  likely  the  most   common  disease  of  the  Western  world   -­‐ atherosclerosis  à  plaque  rupture  +  thrombosis  à  ischemia  à  tissue  anoxia  à  damage  and  cell  death   -­‐ may  involve  inherited  or  acquired  factors   -­‐ e.g.  increased  incidence  in  people  with  hypertension,  hypercholesterolemia,  diabetes  mellitus,  obesity,  or   those   who  smoke     Metabolic  and  Nutritional   -­‐ nutritional  disorders  are  due  to  diet   -­‐ most  common  world  wide  is  inadequate  number  of  calories  in  the  diet  (poor  food  supply  and  development)   -­‐ in  the  West,  we  have  too  much  food  but  of  poor  quality  ( from  processing  à  contributes  to  obesity)   -­‐ metabolic  disorders  result  in  abnormal  production  of  enzymes,  hormones,  or  secretory  products   -­‐ could  be  defect  in  chain  where  everythin g  after  that  point  is  too  low   -­‐ could  get  build  up  of  metabolites  and  could  lead  to  disease  process   -­‐ often  hereditary  but  some  may  be  acquired  (diet  too  high  in  fat,  too  low  in  protein)     Tumours   -­‐ diseases  of  abnormal  growth,   neoplasia  (new  growth)  leading  to  tumours   -­‐ growth  occupies  space  and  may  obstruct  or  compress  other  tissues  (mass  effect)  and  so  lead  to  disease   -­‐ some  tumours  secrete  hormone-­‐like  chemicals  which  disrupt  body  functions  à  excess  production  of  a  hormone   à   disrupts  body   -­‐ cancer  refers  to  malignant  neoplasms,  often  with  the  ability  to   spread  (metastasize  –  when  tumour  cells  come  off   the  main  one,  into  circulation,  and  goes  to  other  sites)     -­‐ iatrogenic  disorders  are  caused  by  physicians     o e.g.  the  over  prescription  of  drugs  (caused  by  bad  decisions)   -­‐ psychological  disorders  could  include  depression -­‐related  changes  in  body  chemistry   -­‐ idiopathic  disease  are  those  with  an  unknown  cause  (can  be  harmful  or  harmless)     Two  Reasons  why  Lab  Tests  are  Ordered   1) for  diagnosis  of  disease   2) for  management  of  illness  or  health     Purpose  of  a  Diagnostic  Testing   -­‐ to  screen  for  disease  without  symptoms   -­‐ “screening”  seeks  to  find  hidden  disease  in  a  population  deemed  to  be  healthy   à  screens  disease  where  no   symptoms  are  present   -­‐ OR  to  confirm  a  disease  that  there  is  some  evidence  for   -­‐ OR  to  exclude  a  disease  that  is  possible  but  not  likely   o to  confirm  or  exclude  a  disease   Examples   -­‐ screening   o heart  disease  à  cholesterol    
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