NMC382 Review Term 1

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Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
Ron Leprohon

Groups of Gods (GOD=NETJER): Diads Seth and Horus Seth (uncle) tries to take the throne of Horus (son and heir of Osiris) their story is important in establishing the rule of succession Horus is calm and reasons with the gods, whereas Seth is violent Osiris and Isis siblings as well as spouses Isis and Nephthys sisters who hunted for Osiris after Seth had killed his and scattered his body Isis and Horus Mother and son she supports him throughout his fight with Seth Triads Pluralistic three represent plurality usually father, mother, and son/daughter Ptah, Sekhmet, Nefertum (Memphis Triad) Amun, Mut, Khonsu (Thebes Triad) Atum, Iuesaas, Hathor (Heliopolis Triad) Khnum, Satis, Anukis (Elephantine Triad) Abu Simbel group: Amun-Re, Re-Harakhty, Ptah + Pharaoh (Triad of the Empire) Abydos group (Seti I - Seven Chapels in his temple to Osiris): Osiris, Isis, Horus (Triad of the Dead); Ptah, Re, Amun + King Monastic Three Gods in one Kephri, Re Atum Kephri = Morning Re = Afternoon Atum = Evening Re was the most important Atum, Shu, Tephnut Enneads 9 gods 3 generations of Gods Heliopolis: Atum, Shu, Tefnut; Geb, Nut; Osiris, Isis, Seth and Nephthys Ogdoads 8 gods Four pairs of male-female gods Hermopolis: Nun-Nunet (waters, formlessness); Heh-Hehet (immeasurable, chaos); Keku-Kekut (darkness); Tenem-Tenemet (invisibility, hiddeness) Syncretism combination of gods to make a new entity Re-Harakhty (a combination of Re and the concept of Horus of the Two Horizons) Ptah-Sokar-Osiris (two gods of the dead anda creator god; possibility of ressurection - lord of the sanctuary) Amun-Re-Ptah (Triad of the Empire) Theophoric names Names with the name of gods in them (show how people related to Gods, and during what periods) greater number of divine names in archaic period Creator Gods Re Sun God from Iunu (pillar town) - major cult in Heliopolis forms: anthropomorphic, hawk, sundisk with wings (the sundisk is ALWAYS present); underworld: ram-headed with a sundisk Atum His name means the complete one as well as not to be - a dualism within himself Major cult at Heliopolis In 6th Dynasty, considered to be the first god, having created himself Created Shu and Tefnut (divine fluid/word) Also a solar deity (associated more with the evening sun) forms: anthropomorphic with dual crown of Egypt, sometimes serpent, mongoose, lion, bull, lizard or ape Khepri The one who becomes a solar deity, with major cult at Heliopolis associated with rebirth, Resurrection and renewal forms: human shaped with beetle for head, as well as scarab beetle associated with the dawning sun Shu and Tefnut Shu = the one who rises up - wears ostrich feathers on head tephnut is spit - anthropomorphic with sun disk or serpant, sometimes human with lioness head represent the two different life principles Shu is the god of air, tephnut is the goddess of moisture Shu holds up the vault of heaven (air) major centre at Heliopolis, father and mother of Geb and Nut Geb divine power within the earth - earth is masculine identity one of the creator gods member of ennead of Heliopolis forms: anthropomorphic, sometimes with the head of a snake, a crocodile, a ram or bull Geb contains the word for field (Sekhet) earth is masculine, sky feminine water is masculine, field is feminine combination of the two creates food: male (water=iteru) + female (field) Nut second generation goddess of the Helipolitan myth sky goddess stretching herself over the earth sometimes shown as a cow help up by various gods She is shown to swallow the sun at sunset; it travels through her body during the night (at which time it goes through the underworld) and then she gives birth to the dun at sunrise considered the mistress of the west, reaching out to the sun to swallow it Nun male god who represents the primeval waters land mass emerged out of the water on which a lotus flower bloomed from this lotus flower Re-Kephri emerges Nun is this water from which the land mass emerges form: frog-headed man, bearded man, or man with blue-green skin to represent water represented by a sacred lake or stream Ptah originated in Memphis anthropomorphic god part of the Memphis triad Ptah had to use the spoken word to bring things to life (importance of spoken word) forms: Apis bull - messenger of god, priests poke to the people through the bull; anthropomorphic: a mummified man with green skin and a
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